# Questions tagged [reference-request]

Questions requesting papers in the literature on specific, narrow issues.

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### Counter automata with a bound on the counters?

It is widely known that emptiness of counter automata is undecidable since two counters are enough to simulate a Turing machine (see the classic book from Hopcroft and Ullman, for example). However, ...
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### Heuristics for a variant of the traveling salesman problem

I am looking at a variant of TSP in which rather than visiting every node, there is a given collection of (possibly overlapping) subset, and the salesman must pass through one node from each subset. ...
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### reference request: solving problems by dynamic programming + quantization to avoid combinatorial explosion

The context: I have been working lately with problems like the following: Let $x_{k}\in\mathbb{R}^n$ be a state evolving accroding to: $$x_{k+1} = f(x_k,u_k), k=0,\dots,N-1$$ given some $x_0$ and ...
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### Intro to basic automated proof search for theorems in equational theories

I have heard about this topic, and I'm merely looking for a reference that I can read through: I know about formal logic as a proof-checking system, but I haven't yet learned about actual algorithms ...
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### Mathematical models of computation that capture more advanced OS and CPU design features

The universal Turing machine is the standard theoretical model of a stored-program computer. While in one sense as general as possible (Turing completeness), it doesn't explicitly contain many of the ...
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### Is there a book with 100 reductions?

In a lecture I'm taking about complexity theory a professor said, there are infinite many NP-complete problems. Question: I was wondering if there exists something like a database or a book with some ...
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### Produce a Dynkin system from a finite set of finite sets

[Updated question] A Dynkin System is, provided all sets are finite, a collection of subsets of a universal set closed under complements with the universal set and closed under union of disjoint sets. ...
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### Periodic 4D Triangulations

I am looking for references and/or algorithms for generating 4-dimensional periodic triangulations on unit 4 lattices. That is, generating a space filling triangulation of the 4D integer lattice (Z^4) ...
54 views

### what precisely do linear types prevent?

"A theory of type polymorphism in programming" introduced the Hindly-Milner type system whose punchline can be summarized "well-typed terms don’t get stuck". They do this by ...
47 views

### Filling in the image by the brain

The Cones and rods are not evenly or precisely sensitized on the retina by incoming light. Because of this, the image is formed with distortions. But the brain corrects these deformations through a ...
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### Using B+Tree to implement index, when the index-key size and the data-block size are of the same order

I want to implement an Index using a B+Tree as the underlying data structure. The index will have to support key sizes which are of order of my block size, what means I cannot save all the key as a ...
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### Kolmogorov complexity of probability distributions, with and without time bound

Kolmogorov complexity of a string is the length of the shortest algorithm that generates it. Here I'm focusing instead on randomly distributed strings $x$, with length $n$, with a probability ...
43 views

### What is this linear optimization problem?

Given a $d$-dimensional vector $v = (v_1,\dots,v_d) \in \Bbb{R}^d$, we define $f(v) = \min_{i\in [d]} \{v_i\}$ to be the smallest coordinate of $v$. Let $v^1,\dots,v^n \in \Bbb{R}^d_{\ge 0}$ be non-...
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### Problem with understanding Multi-party security circuit for secure stable matching

I am reading the following paper: MPCircuits: Optimized Circuit Generation for Secure Multi-Party Computation Paper Link I have following question: We have two groups shown in the circuit. Why we ...
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### Definition of static property of object in OOP

Grady Booch in Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications says: The state of an object encompasses all of the (usually static) properties of the object plus the current (usually dynamic) ...
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### Proving FPT is strictly contained in XP

In their book Fundamentals of Parameterized Complexity, Downey and Fellows claim (in chapter 27.1) that $\mathrm{FPT}\subsetneq \mathrm{XP}$, and that this is a "basic result" that follows ...
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### What is the primary reference for the observation/discussion of how neural networks struggle with ambiguous training datasets?

It is known that neural networks, such as convolutional neural networks, struggle with pattern recognition if training sets contain ambiguities (i.e. several labels can correspond to one and the same ...
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### Where were the ideas of vote, accept and commit phases originally introduced?

In the Stellar Consensus Protocol SCP, the voting procedure follows a 3 phase commit i.e. vote, accept and confirm i.e. see section 5. Is this a novel introduction or has this been previously been ...
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### Do white box methods for feature extraction exist for facial recognition?

Part of something I'm working on (or rather begin working on) involves white box approaches to facial recognition. I previously worked on something for character recognition using scene segmentation ...
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### Formal Description Of Data Structure For Infinite Sets Of Reals

The paper I'm working on uses sets as implemented in https://docs.sympy.org/latest/modules/sets.html. A set is stored in a data structure as a sequence of intervals with open or closed bounds, so it ...
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### Research on Tree Automata/Tree Transducers for implementing Tree Generators

I would like to write from scratch a tree pattern matching algorithm. Well actually, not just a matching algorithm, and not even a tree transducer, but a sort of tree constructor that takes basically ...
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### Uniform convergence for a class of finite dimension

The following theorem is cited in Balcan, M.F., Sandholm, T. and Vitercik, E., 2019. Estimating approximate incentive compatibility which I am currently reading and it is referenced to David Pollard. ...
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### How to translate automatons (Turing machines) into programs of high level programming language?

Every program in high level ("industrial") programming language can be expressed as some Turing machine. I guess, that there exists universal algorithm for doing that (e.g. one can take the ...
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### Companion volume to Concurrency verification of Willem-Paul de Roever

At the moment I am working hard with the book "Concurrency Verification Introduction to Compositional and Non-compositional Methods" written by Willem-Paul de Roever et al. In the ...
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### Inferring reward function and transition model from optimal policy

Consider an MDP where the transition model and the reward function are unknown. Consider an optimal policy $\pi^*$ generated from this MDP (say by some oracle who does know the transition model and ...
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### Is there a graph theory textbook that covers treewidth thoroughly?

Can someone recommend a graph theory textbook that covers treewidth thoroughly? Something that focuses on the graph-theoretic structure of bounded treewidth graphs rather than solving problems on them....
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### Asking for references on errors, testing, system failures etc

I am looking for references that talk about the following subject: Software programs are in general complex systems. That is, if we decompose them into components and we make sure that each component ...
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### Algorithmic information theory with stochastic algorithms?

Suppose we define a class of algorithms that is allowed to sample i.i.d. Bernoulli bitstrings of arbitrary length, and use these to generate outputs. If we are allowed to use algorithms like this, ...
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### Degree of regularity of a Markov chain

A Markov chain with transition matrix $P$ is termed regular if for some $n$, all entries of $P^n$ are positive. Is there a known notion of degree of regularity quantified in terms of how soon all ...
261 views

### What was Robert Floyd's algorithm for inserting brackets?

In page 71 of Mathematics for Computer Science (page 77 in the pdf) it says that "The Turing award (the “Nobel Prize” of computer science) was ultimately bestowed on Robert Floyd, for, among other ...
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### Reliability of information on large social networks like Wikipedia [closed]

I was going through the playlist of an online course on Social Network Analysis offered by the Indian Institute of Technology (Madras), when I came across the claim that "when a lot of people get ...
140 views

### What is a self-delimiting program?

I came across the term self-delimiting program, referring to the paper "Laws of information (nongrowth) and aspects of the foundation of probability theory" by Levin, 1974. Unfortunately ...
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### What is the origin of the client server model?

I was wondering if someone knew the origin of the client server model. Where does the term come from (paper, software application, book)?
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### Generalization of finding $L_\infty$ centroid in $R^2$ via rotating and minimizing sum of $L_1$ distances

Given a set of points $x_1, \dots, x_n \in \mathbb{R}^2$, suppose one wants to find: $\text{argmin}_i \sum\limits_{j=1}^{n} \lVert x_i - x_j\rVert_\infty$ i.e. the point which minimizes the sum of the ...
Some mathematical formulas directly suggest an algorithm for computing it (even if sometimes an inefficient one). For example, if we recursively define $\sum_{i=1}^nx_i=x_n+\sum_{i=1}^{n-1}x_i$, then ...