Questions tagged [relational-algebra]

the study of relations (i.e., database tables) and relational operators (join, selection, projection, etc.) as a kind of algebraic structure.

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Relational Algebra: set theoretic definitions for typical operations?

Wiki has set theoretic definitions of relational algebra used in databases. The typical set operations are missing and I'm trying to piece them together. Does anyone know how to define the $\cup, \...
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How do relational algebra query analyzers generate query alternatives?

tl;dr: How does a query analyzer know how to modify a query to find a better one? I would like to implement a distributed database. I have figured out ways of storing data in a normalized form, and ...
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At least 3 clause in Relational Algebra

How can I set "at least 3" clause. Example: I have: a table sailors(SailorsID, SailorsName, Age, Rating), a table Boats(BoatID, BoatName, Color), a table reserved(SailorsID, BoatID, ...
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29 views

Projection syntax - relational algebra

I'm trying to understand this paper and in Figure 1 page 389 there's a projection in the form of $\pi_{d.id : s.id}$. What does the colon mean? Because usually projections are simply $\pi_{name}(R)$
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Are there some database models (or possibly data structures) which implement some aspects of relational algebra without using SQL?

Are there some database models (or possibly data structures) which implement some aspects of relational algebra without using SQL? More precisely, are there some RDMS which use the host language as a ...
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251 views

Is it possible to convert any relational algebra expression into a relational calculus expression?

Let's for the sake of simplicity only focus on tuple relational calculus. Every relational algebra query can be broken down into the 5 atomic operations - projection, selection, set union, set ...
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How to simplify the query qualification?

Given the following DB and query : Now if we need to simplify the query qualification, here is the answer from the book (Principle of distributed database systems, third edition) : My question is in ...
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constant relation in the base case of relational algebra

in the base case of the inductive definition of the operations of the relational algebra there is also the so called "constant relation" (as for example found in the definition here https://...
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Which of the query approaches are more efficient?

There are two relations, registered(participant,topic) and fee(participant,amount). The primary key for registered is (participant, topic) and the primary key for fee is participant. The premise is ...
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Optional filters in relational database

I'm trying to create a procedure in MySQL/MariaDB with optional filters for each participating table. Assuming the tables are $A, B, C, \ldots$, each table may or may not be filtered, and the result ...
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How attributes helps us to allow column interchange in a relational database?

A relation on two sets $A$ and $B$ is defined as the subset of the cartesian product $$A\times B = \{(a,b),\ a \in A, b \in B\}$$ A database is also a relation and each entry is an ordered tuple ...
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65 views

Check if a relation is reflexive, symmetric and transitive

I want to better understand how this actually works, as my solutions are sometimes not 100% correct. I have the following relation: Check if the following relation is reflexive, symmetric, and/or ...
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Is Neo4J computationally equivalent to relational algebra

I am wondering whether Neo4j and the associated Cypher query language is computationally equivalent to relational algebra? Any ideas or papers on that topic?
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Using count() in Relational Algebra

Sell (Bar, Beer) I want a table in which the first column has the name of the beer and the second has the total number of bars which sell that beer, but I have no idea how to use count () in the right ...
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100 views

Are intersection and union redundant? Possibility to get smaller output without negation?

I've just started learning relational algebra, so I'm reading a lot of articles for this topic. Not so long ago I've encountered two statements that seem to be quite weird to me. ∩ and ∪ (...
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Relation Closure for F+

$A \rightarrow B C$ $C D \rightarrow E$ $B \rightarrow D$ $E \rightarrow A$ I have these Relations for R={A,B,C,D,E} Now I have to calculate the closure $F^+$ and give the candidate keys I came ...
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95 views

Functional dependencies on relational schema

Given a relational schema $R(V,W,X,Y,Z)$ with functional dependencies $F = \{VW \to X, X \to YZ, W \to VX, V \to W, Z \to XY\}$. What are the keys of $R$? Is the key just $V$? If so, is $\{ R_2(V,W,...
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Incremental View Maintenance for projection

I was reading https://www2.cs.duke.edu/courses/spring02/cps296.1/lectures/08-view.pdf Or in the paper "Incremental Maintenance of Views with Duplicates," by Griffin and Libkin, SIGMOD, 1995. figure 2....
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Need help in understanding these relational algebra queries

I just finished reading about operators in relational algebra and tried to solve this problem. But I dont even understand what the first statement is doing. From what I know, $π$ (project) is a unary ...
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Relational Algebra Queries look same

Query A and Query C seem to be the same.But given answer is query A. Can someone help me to find the difference between queries A and C ?
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Is relational algebra a procedural, imperative, and/or declarative language?

In Database System Concepts 6ed, 6.2 The Tuple Relational Calculus When we write a relational-algebra expression, we provide a sequence of procedures that generates the answer to our query. The tuple ...
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Using relational algebra to express all with a condition

I encountered this question while revising for my finals exam on database theory. The following database contains information about car repair workshops. The following tables are used: $$Workshop(\...
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Are entities in a many-to-many relation related individually?

I know in some many-to-many relationships, an entity is related to other entities on an individual basis. But is this always the case? For example, in the ...
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817 views

Why " every non-prime attribute of R is non-transitively dependent on every key of R" in the original def of 3NF?

I have read the definition in of Third_normal_form here , which shows The third normal form (3NF) is a normal form used in database normalization. 3NF was originally defined by E.F. Codd in 1971.[2]...
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210 views

Is it possible to encode logical expression and interpret it with SQL?

Is it possible without any forms of eval or stored procedures to execute a query, which interprets logical expression, encoded in some way in a table (or two tables)...
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281 views

Finding the frequency of each unique value of an attribute in a relation (RELATIONAL ALGEBRA)

I am trying to figure out how I can use aggregate functions to solve this problem. For example if I had the table enrolled(student-id, course-id) 123 897 123 645 589 452 009 897 If I wanted to ...
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"Functional dependencies" with cardinality constraints

Let us write $\{ A_1, \ldots, A_k\} \rightrightarrows^n \{B_1, \ldots, B_m\}$ for a relation $R$ if for all $\langle a_1, \ldots, a_k\rangle$ we have $\left\lvert \pi_{B_1, \ldots, B_m} \sigma_{\...
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192 views

Doubt regarding foreign key and referential integrity

I am studying database from Database System Concepts. The author was explaining foreign keys and referential integrity with the help of following schemas: $$ instructor(\underline{ID},\space name,\...
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66 views

Whether same output is obtained for the two queries

Consider the following SQL Queries executed on the relation Employee: Employee (Eid, Ename, sal) Eid is the primary key Queries: S1:SELECT count (*) FROM Employee; S2: SELECT count (Eid) FROM ...
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Normal form of relation R

It is given that for a relation R all the attributes of the relation appear in some of the candidate keys. It is also given that there is only one compound candidate key which exists for a relation, ...
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Is it possible to do a NULL comparison in Relational Algebra?

Please consider the following question given in a booklet: I have read about databases from Database System Concepts - by Henry F. Korth, but never saw an instance where we could do a NULL comparison ...
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Relational calculus to SQL

I am somewhat aware of the correspondence between (tuple and domain) relational calculus, relational algebra, and SQL. To the best of my understanding, one should be able to automatically convert a ...
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369 views

Use of existential quantifier in tuple relational calculus

It is somewhat confusing to me when to use quantifiers in tuple relational calculus (TRC). I stumbled upon following problem and I am still scratching my head thinking why not TRC query can be ...
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335 views

How to print all pairs of ID numbers such that the corresponding people don't belong to the same socieities

I want to express the following in relational algebra: Given a table of PEOPLE: ID, SocietyName Where the combination of ID and SocietyName form a key such that ...
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Query Super Type and Subtype in Mysql

Assuming I have a schema depicted in the image , showing relationships(specialization) between Staffs, Academic Staffs and Non Academic Staffs. Is it possible to have a query that retrieves the ...
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Algorithm for segmenting input query into query/join tree

Wondering what algorithms look like for implementing a complex JOIN query handler. Taking a look at this paper Building Query Compilers they talk about Query Graphs ...
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How to prove/disprove distribution of division over union

How can I prove distribution of division over union in relational algebra, i.e. the following: $$(R \cup S) / X \overset{?}{=} (R / X) \cup (S / X)$$
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What is the equivalent form of full outer join in relational algebra?

Considering only basic relational algebra operations, how can we implement the full outer-join ?
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relational algebra to get unique pairs

Let's say we are given this table of the relation Person(name, hobby) ...
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finding third functional dependency and its candidate keys

i'm solving a multi part question regarding candidate keys and functional dependencies. now i've already found 2 dependencies(the canonical covering of the functional dependencies contains only 3 ...
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Two related partial order relations

We will consider a set whose elements I call "precedences". Precedences are related by two relations: "is subclass of" and "higher than", which are specified by some pairs (given on algorithm input) ...
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Max() in Domain Relational Calculus

I was looking through my notes on domain relational calculus, and noticed an interesting result in a question about finding the most expensive pizza(s), given a pizza table with schema $\text{pizza}(\...
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Domain relational calculus to relational algebra

I have an expression in DRC $\{\langle a,b,c \rangle \mid \langle a,b \rangle \in r \land \langle a,b \rangle \in s\}$, where $r = (A,B)$ and $s = (A,C)$. I want to convert it onto relational algebra ...
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Automatically merging relational data

Background Semiautomated file merging is a critical part of version control systems (all the ones I've used anyway!). This is usually accomplished on textual source code without the tool understanding ...
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Relational algebra and indexes

How might indexes be represented in the context of relational algebra? How would an optimizer transform a query to use indexes?
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Is Datalog negation and the built-in predicate $ \neq $ similar?

I was reading "Principles of Database & Knowledge-Base Systems, Vol. 1" by Jeffrey D. Ullman. There is a chapter about Datalog negation and as I was seeing the problems of negation I kept thinking ...
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258 views

SQL, optimizing a select statement in relational algebra

is it possible to rewrite the following sql statement $\pi_{R.a,S.d} (\sigma_{R.b = "d" \land S.d \geq 100 \lor T.d \geq 200}((R\times S)\times T))$ ? My problem is, i dont know if it is possible to ...
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What do the commas separating atomic events in a Relational Calculus formula means?

For instance, take the example of this book here on page 30. About the formula $$ Q(x,x') = R(x), S(x,y), S(x',y), R(x') $$ described there, what do the commas mean? Is it the same as an "and" ...
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Difference between the Cartesian product in set theory and in relational algebra

What's the difference between the Cartesian product in set theory and in relational algebra? The Cartesian product in set theory is defined as: $$A \times B = \{(a, b) \mid (a \in A) \land (b \in B)\...