Questions tagged [satisfiability]

Satisfiability (SAT) is the problem of determining whether there is a variable assignment that fulfills a given Boolean formula.

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1answer
33 views

Clarification on “clause learning” in DPLL algorithm

I am struggling to understand the idea of conflict-driven clause learning, in particular, I can not understand why the clause we 'learned' is a substantially new (i.e. the clause database does not ...
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algorithm for a #SAT oracle (#SAT algorithm)

i tried to look for an algorithm that decides whether an input x is in #SAT or not. $\#SAT$ is defined, at least in this case to be: $<\phi ,k>=\left\{\phi \:is\:a\:boolean\:formula\:with\:at\:...
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Flip Output of SAT problem [duplicate]

Why cant I Just create a TM A that runs a NTM B with a formula to compute the SAT Problem and Just Flip its Output. So when the Input NTM B Returns true (formula is satisfyable) the TM A Return false.
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Special Monotone SAT problem: NP complete?

Say we have the set $X=\{ x_1, x_2, \dots \}$ of variables. Then we consider the following problem: Is the formula $$\bigwedge_{(a,b,c) \in A}(a \vee b \vee c) \wedge \bigwedge_{(a,b,c) \in B}(\neg a ...
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1answer
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Polynomial-time linear-reduction from Directed Hamiltonian Path Problem to 3SAT

Is there a polynomial-time reduction from Directed Hamiltonian Path Problem to 3SAT which is linear in the number of vertices? That is, it reduces every directed graph $G$ with $n$ vertices to a ...
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244 views

An Exact Method for Solving Small Instances of XORSAT

I have a couple of small instances for XORSAT for which I am to design and implement an exact method. However, there are a few catches. It is guaranteed that there always exists and answer but I need ...
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Class of languages recognizable by n-bit formulas of size at most $T(n)$

A Boolean (combinatoiral) circuit is a labeled (with the labels: AND, OR, NOT, IN, OUT), directed, acyclic graph, that satisfies: fan-in=2 for the AND and OR nodes fan-n=1 for the NOT nodes fan-...
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Give me ideas for an undergraduate final year math project about Boolean Satisfiability and SAT solvers

Context I am a student starting an undergrad math project. I was instructed to read Donald Knuth's Fascicle 6: Satisfiability and come up with ideas for a project from this material. I have 13 weeks ...
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Are there any resources or forums online for helping me understand TAOCP?

Context I am doing an undergrad math project that involves exploring Donald Knuth's "TAOCP, Volume 4, fascicle 6: Satisfiability". I am having trouble parsing some of this material. Surely there ...
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Boolean matrix / satisfiability problem [duplicate]

Let $M$ be an $m\times n$ matrix with all elements in $\{1,0\}$, $m >> n$. Let $\mathbf{v}_0, \ldots, \mathbf{v}_n$ be the columns of $M$. I want to find all sets of columns $S = \{\mathbf{v}_{...
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1answer
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Encoding set of At-Most-One constraints as a MAX-SAT problem

Assume a set of variable $V$ = $\{v_1,...,v_m\}$. Given total $n$ at-most-one (AMO) constraints (at most one element in a given set is true) set [of the below form], over the variable set $V$, $$ ...
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1answer
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Integer programming to MAX-SAT translation

Reading A Comparison of Methods for Solving MAX-SAT Problems, I can see that a MAX-SAT problem can be translated to an integer programming (IP) problem. Definition of MAX-SAT [Wikipedia]: The ...
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Is it feasible to solve this subset cover problem with SAT solver?

The problem is to find $\mathcal{S}$, a minimal collect of subsets of $\{1,\dots, 17\}$ such that the two conditions are satisfied: if $S \subseteq \mathcal{S}$ then $|S|=6$; for any $A \subseteq \{1,...
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CNF2 = { φ | φ is a satisfiable CNF-formula in which each variable appears at most 2 times}. Show CNF2 is in P

CNF2 = { φ | φ is a satisfiable CNF-formula in which each variable appears at most 2 times}. Show CNF2 is in P. I found this solution: We use the method of resolution to take the variables out ...
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CNFH = {⟨φ⟩| φ is a satisfiable cnf-formula where each clause contains any number of literals, but at most one negated literal} ∈ P

The problem derived from the book of Sipser and the question was already posted (link) with partial comments. Let CNFH = {⟨φ⟩| φ is a satisfiable cnf-formula where each clause contains any number ...
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Using induction prove that a K-SAT problem is NP-Complete

Using induction on k, how do I prove that the K-SAT problem is NP-complete? On wikipedia, it describes the Cook-Levin theorem to prove that K-SAT is NPC by reducting the K-SAT problem to a circuit-...
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1answer
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CNF satisfiability with a bound on number of clauses

Consider the CNF-sat problem with n literals and k clauses. If k scales linearly in n, we get np-completeness (e.g., 3-sat where each literal appears at most 4 times). Do we still get np-completeness ...
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Are SAT problems with at most two false clauses NP-complete?

Is the problem of deciding whether a SAT instance, where at most two clauses are false (that is, any given variable assignment will either lead to all clauses being true, all but one, or all but two), ...
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1answer
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Significance of quantifier ordering in quantified boolean formulas (kQBF vs. QBF)

I am studying solvers of quantified boolean formulas (QBF) as a generalization of SAT solving. The standard DIMACS format of SAT specification is extended to QDIMACS, which adds "a ..." and "e ..." ...
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checking '<' for two binary numbers in a cnf-formula

I want to check whether a arbitrary binary number is less or equal to another binary number in a cnf-formula. I can already construct a formula, which is not in cnf: Lets say n and m are two-digit ...
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1answer
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Find a truth assignment of 2SAT that has the most number of true variables?

Given a 2SAT instance in CNF where each clause has at most two literals. Let $m$ be the number of clauses and $n$ be the number of variables et let $k$ be a positive number. Question: Is there a ...
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1answer
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Are SAT problems with at most one false clause NP-complete?

Is the problem of deciding whether a SAT instance, where at most one clause is false (that is, any given variable assignment will either lead to all clauses being true, or all but one), is satisfiable ...
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1answer
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How to encode reachability in a graph with walls as a SAT problem

Suppose we have a graph that represents a grid of cells. We are given a cell to start in and a cell that's the destination. There are cells that we cannot enter and they are known as walls. Finally we ...
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1answer
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Practical hard 3-sat instances

The $3-SAT$ problem is known to be NP-complete problem. Which means that (as far as I understand), unless $P \neq NP$, for every algorithm $A$ which decides $3-SAT$, $A$ runs in super polynomial time (...
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A question about NP and coNP

It is an open question if NP $\neq$ Co-NP but if the conjecture were proved, this would mean that P $\neq$ NP because P is closed under complement. Now a fact that fails to enter my head is the ...
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Min-Ones-2-SAT getting to vertex cover

In the Min-Ones-2-SAT problem, we are given a 2-CNF formula φ and an integer k, and the objective is to decide whether there exists a satisfying assignment for φ with at most k variables set to true....
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1answer
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Is inverse CNF polynomial?

Suppose we are given a CNF formula $F$ with $n$ variables and $m$ clauses. The question is whether we can represent $\lnot F$ as a CNF formula with the number of clauses polynomial in $n$ and $m$?
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Random restarts for unsatisfiable instances

In the worst case, Boolean satisfiability (assuming P!=NP) takes exponential time. Nonetheless, modern SAT solvers using variants of DPLL, are able to solve enough instances to be useful in practice. ...
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1answer
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Is properly quantified 3SAT complete for PSPACE and all PH levels?

I know 3SAT is NP-complete and QSAT is PSPACE-complete. However, is it true that $$\exists X_1 \forall X_2 \cdots Q_k X_k \colon \varphi(X_1, \ldots, X_k)$$ is complete for $\Sigma_k$, the ...
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High-dimensional geometry and P vs. NP

Background: Recently, I obtained the following equivalent problem to SAT. We are given as input a CNF formula with $n$ variables and $m$ clauses. Suppose we have an $n$-dimensional hyper-cube centered ...
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Does the naive conversion of a Boolean Formula to CNF have a polynomial or exponential complexity?

I am reading the naive conversion to CNF, this procedure is explaining in this book book, but I have not found a conplexity analysis of this algorithm: elimination of equivalence Elimination of ...
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1answer
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CLIQUE $\leq_p$ SAT

i'm trying to reduce CLIQUE to SAT: Given: Graph G=(Vertices V, Edges E) and $k \in \mathbb{N}$ Output: Formular F such that if G contains a complete subgraph of size k, the formular is satisfiable (...
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A doubt on converting NOT gate to CNF formula

For a NOT gate if $x_1$ is input and $x_2$ is the corresponding output, I see the equivalent CNF (conjunctive normal form) is $(x_1 \lor x_2) \land (\overline x_1 \lor \overline x_2)$. My ...
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Second Order QBF

Consider a universe with two elements 0,1 and a second order formula, i.e. of the form "forall R exists S ... such that F", where R,S are relation symbols of some given arity, and F is some first ...
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1answer
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Encoding a “not-k-out-of-n” constraint for SAT solvers

I'm finding myself needing to encode a "not-k-out-of-n" constraint in a SAT solver. The "at-most-k-out-of-n" constraint for SAT solvers is something I can find research about -- this paper by Frisch ...
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Determine if a graph has exactly 1 cycle using a SAT solver

I have a connected undirected graph whose edges are either enabled or disabled. I want to create a set of clauses that are SAT iff all enabled edges are part of a single loop. If I assert that each ...
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1answer
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SAT algorithm for determining if a graph is disjoint

What are some good algorithms to have a SAT (CNF) solver determine if a given graph is fully-connected or disjoint? The best one I can think of is this: Number the nodes 1..N, where N is the number ...
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Reducing Graph Reachability to SAT (CNF)

So I came across this problem in my textbook. I was wondering how to develop a reduction from the Graph Reachability problem to SAT (CNF) problem. (i.e. formula is satisfiable iff there exists a path ...
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2answers
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Prove that this language is NP-Hard

Given $$\mathrm{\#3SAT} = \{ (w, y) \mid w\text{ is a $\mathrm{3SAT}$ instance with at least $y$ satisfying assignments}\}\,,$$ prove that $\mathrm{\#3SAT}$ is NP-Hard. I am currently stuck with ...
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What is the generating algorithm for the “komb” instances found on satcompetition.org?

For the 2017 and 2018 Random SAT Tracks of the SAT Competition ran by the International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing there are small, yet difficult, random 3-SAT ...
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Can every Turing Machine be translated into a SAT formula?

For the proof of "Cook-Levin Theorem", for a Turing Machine $M$ that accepts a language $L \in NP$ and input $x \in \{0,1\}^*$, we can create a SAT Formula, that is satisfiable if and only if $M$ ...
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Is there a correspondence of steps between DPLL and sequent-calculus?

Is there a correspondence between the steps in using DPLL to find out that a formula in propositional logic is unsatisfiable and using sequent calculus to prove that its negation is valid? And given ...
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Reduce 4-SAT to 5-SAT

given is a reduction from 4-SAT to 5-SAT. How is it possible to describe such a function? I found some informations about reduction 3-SAT to 4-SAT here, but it can't help me so much.
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Is retrospective inference NP-hard?

Here is a minimal working example of the question: Consider a network with nodes arranged in a pyramid: $1$ node in the first row, $1+d$ nodes in the second, $1+2d$ nodes in the third, and so on, ...
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Is a “stacked”, “local” version of 3-SAT NP-hard?

In this previous question, I learned that if each variable in a string $C \in 3\text{-SAT}$ appears only "locally", then finding a satisfying assignment is no longer NP-hard. My question below builds ...
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1answer
34 views

Translation of diagnosis problem to SAT

I have the following diagnosis problem: h(A): z1 = not(in1) h(D): z2 = not(in2) h(B): z3 = z1 or z2 h(C): out1 = not(z3) h(E): out2 = not(z3) This is an image of the system: I have an observation ...
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Is a “local” version of 3-SAT NP-hard?

Below is my simplification of part of a larger research project on spatial Bayesian networks: Say a variable is "$k$-local" in a string $C \in 3\text{-CNF}$ if there are fewer than $k$ clauses ...
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1answer
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Finding a language that is $NP^L$-complete

I'm trying to prove a theorem and as a lemma I would like to identify an $NP^L$-complete language. I was thinking something like a machine that can decide $SAT$ equipped with an oracle for $L$ can ...
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3answers
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Showing that HALF-2-SAT is in P

I need to show that the following problem is in P: $$\begin{align*}\text{HALF-2-SAT} = \{ \langle \varphi \rangle \mid \, &\text{$\varphi$ is a 2-CNF formula and there exists an assignment} \\ &...
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Satisfiability Toward A Sequential Circuit

Define a sequential circuit model be a directed graph with each vertices being a boolean gate. The difference is that we allow cycles in the boolean circuit. Each cycle will determine a boolean ...

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