Skip to main content
Share Your Experience: Take the 2024 Developer Survey

Questions tagged [smt-solvers]

Solver programs for the Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT). The SMT problem is a decision problem for logical formulas with combinations of background theories expressed in classical first-order logic with equality.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0 votes
0 answers
16 views

How do static analysis tools automate separation logic?

I understand separation logic as a form of verification method, similar to Hoare logic. That is, they allow to reason about statements of the form $\{P\} C \{Q\}$, where $C$ is an instruction, and $P$ ...
BlockchainThomas's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
89 views

A Fast Linear-Arithmetic Solver: How can Gaussian elimination be used to simplify matrix A?

I am working on an LRA Theory solver for SymPy, an open source python library for symbolic computations. You can find my work here. Currently I'm trying to optimize it to run faster. My implementation ...
Tilo RC's user avatar
  • 11
1 vote
0 answers
93 views

SMT solver gives up on seemingly trivial problem

I expected CVC5 to produce a proof given the following problem in TPTP format. Why does CVC5 give up on the TPTP problem, but works just fine on the same problem given in SMT-LIB2? In human words, the ...
Max Nowak's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
67 views

What is the difference in heap configurations? Separation logic with CVC5 SMT solver

I am figuring out separation logic and trying to run simple examples in CVC5 smt solver. I am missing some core understanding of how pointers and values are treated there and I don't know where to ...
FrogOfJuly's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
93 views

Is there an SMT/SAT algorithm for General Predicate Logic (FOL)?

I'm learning how to write my own theorem prover. After skimming Decision Procedures (Kroening & Strichman, 2016), I didn't find any SMT algorithms for solving quantified n-ary predicate formulas. ...
Vivek Joshy's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
617 views

How does the SMT solver Z3 handle conditional statements in a constraint?

I have a constraint system which I seek to find solutions for. The constraints consist of lesser/equal inequalities which have a difference of two minimum expressions on their right side, for example: ...
MvB's user avatar
  • 33
0 votes
0 answers
38 views

Specific quantifier elimination for real algebraic numbers

It is well-known that the theory of (first-order) real arithmetic, $\mathcal{T}_{\mathbb{R}}$, is decidable, both on its linear and non-linear (a.k.a field) fragments, since Tarski-Seindenberg proved ...
Theo Deep's user avatar
  • 113
0 votes
1 answer
67 views

Domain of discourse vs First-order theory

In the question (Validity of predicate logic formulas) I see the following way of expressing: "The predicate $P(x,y) \equiv \bigl[ y \cdot x = 1 \bigr]$, where the domain of discourse is $\...
Theo Deep's user avatar
  • 113
1 vote
0 answers
97 views

SMT validity solvers/ quantifier elimination in Ocaml

I am working on my own expression package in Ocaml and have to perform both validity queries and quantifier elimination. I have already implemented Cooper's procedure (for Presburger and Linear ...
Theo Deep's user avatar
  • 113
1 vote
1 answer
152 views

Are there any solvers that can handle non-linearity?

I need a way to solve linear and non-linear inequalities over the natural numbers. So equations like this should be solveable: $\forall n, p, q \in \mathbb{N}. q \cdot (1 + n^p) \leq q$ From what I ...
John Smith's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
58 views

How to represent bottom element (integer domains) in SMT formula

I'm doing some work with static analysis and need to represent local variables as SMT formulas. In general this is fairly straight forward, depending on the domain of the static analysis. However, ...
kballou's user avatar
  • 23
0 votes
0 answers
58 views

SAT solvers that can compute prime implicants and/or minimization

I'm looking into computing the prime implicants of a Boolean function. I have found many different algorithms in the literature, many of them relying on SAT solvers. However, I have not been able to ...
Noel Arteche's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
69 views

Assign few binary variables to make all polynomials identically zero

I have 50 polynomials $f_i$ over binary variables $(x_1,\ldots,x_{100})$. Also $f_i(0,0,\ldots,0)=0$ for any $i \in [1,50]$. I want to assign few variables so that all $f_i$ will be identically zero. ...
Sanu's user avatar
  • 49
0 votes
2 answers
157 views

Tutorials/resources for building a toy SMT solver

I've built a rudimentary SAT Solver from scratch, and wanted to do the same with SMT solvers as well. While I've found two toy SMT Solver implementations in Haskell and Ocaml, but no tutorials or ...
Alex Coleman's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
36 views

Which of these properties hold for all FO theories? (but not regarding fragments thereof)

Which of these properties hold for all FO theories? (but not regarding fragments thereof) a. Decidable b. At least expressive as propositional logic c. NP-complete a) Decidable: no, some first order ...
Tijani Eric van Lessen's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
110 views

Constraint satisfaction problem: solve system, then evaluate whether many additional constraints are satisfied one at a time

I have a system that consists of binary inequality constraints between variables, plus some indicator variables that can assume only two values: ...
Evan Honnold's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
210 views

Automated reasoning with real numbers

I have a large number of equivalences which look like: $(a \leq 0.54 \wedge b \geq 0.12) \vee (c \gt 0.98)$ $\Leftrightarrow$ $(x \leq 0.25) \vee (x \gt 0.91 \wedge y \geq 0.01)$ This is just an ...
Velvet Ghost's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
50 views

How to leverage the fact that I'm solving 1000's of very similar SMT instances?

I have a core SMT solver problem consisting of 100,000 bit-vector array clauses, and one 10000-dimensional bit-vector array. Then, my program takes as input k << 100,000 new clauses, and adds ...
lightning's user avatar
  • 225
1 vote
1 answer
953 views

What are the differences between symbolic execution and SAT solvers?

My understanding is that symbolic execution only deals with specific paths and bad patterns, while SAT solvers, or satisfiability modulo theories in general, provide a much more robust analysis of the ...
Paul Razvan Berg's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
63 views

Proving that a property is k-inductive with an SMT solver (parametric resettable counter)

I'm following the slides at https://homepage.cs.uiowa.edu/~tinelli/talks/FT-11.pdf where Tinelli explains how k-induction works in the context of SMT based model checking. A parametric and resettable ...
MuchToLearn's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
60 views

Program synthesis based on function properties

I am fairly new at program synthesis and the use of SMT solvers for this purpose. Given a function g, I want to generate all the functions f and h such that the following holds: f . g = h . f Are ...
user5803465's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
329 views

Check if two items are equal after replacing

Let's say that an item is either a natural number or a list of items. Examples of items are: 1 [2] [4, [3, 1], 3, 4] A rule states that two items are equal. For example: 1 = 2 3 = [3, 1] [4, 3] = [...
Paul's user avatar
  • 149
0 votes
1 answer
26 views

Generating graph with complex structure

I want to generate a bunch of graphs of about 100 nodes, where each node is a categorial variable. I want the graphs to satisfy complex properties, like, "if a node of type A is connected to a node ...
lightning's user avatar
  • 225
1 vote
0 answers
176 views

General Understanding of SMT Solving Across Multiple Theories

My first question was a little too simplified in that it turned out to be an integer linear programming problem solvable with the Simplex Method. However, what I think I am wondering about is how to ...
Lance's user avatar
  • 2,233
-2 votes
1 answer
294 views

How a SMT / SAT Solver Generates Valuations for this Example

First, an example of a set of constraints which turned out not to be solvable (I don't think): ...
Lance's user avatar
  • 2,233
2 votes
0 answers
186 views

Passing arrays vs functions as arguments in SMT?

In SAT Modulo Theories (SMT), with the theory of uninterpreted functions, all functions are first order, that is, they don't take functions as arguments or return functions. In the theory of arrays, ...
Joey Eremondi's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
89 views

Objective function and constraint satisfaction over a set of multi-attributes elements

I'm looking for an approach to solve a problem consisting of maximizing an objective function over a set of discrete elements, while respecting a set of constraints. To illustrate my point, I'll try ...
Jivan's user avatar
  • 203
2 votes
1 answer
3k views

Bit Blasting Algorithm

I found a pseudo algorithm which describes bit blasting: click (page 156,157). I am trying to implement it in C, but I don't understand it yet completely. Let's make an example: Assume our bit-vectors ...
racc44's user avatar
  • 657
4 votes
2 answers
1k views

How could an SMT solver be implemented as simple as possible?

I'm trying to figure out how an SMT solver works as simple as possible. Let's assume we have a simple input program with symbolic values x and ...
racc44's user avatar
  • 657
0 votes
0 answers
178 views

When to use SAT vs solving?

Are there any guidelines for how to recognize, for a given problem, which approach is more likely to yield good results? SAT solver or SMT solver? Is there any guidance anyone can offer about which ...
sepideha's user avatar
  • 101
0 votes
1 answer
61 views

Verification condition in case of array theory

As far as i can understand the problem of checking safety property, can be reduce to solving for inductive invariants in VC's and there is following parts to it: Generate VC's from the program. Solve ...
Pushpa's user avatar
  • 933
3 votes
3 answers
245 views

Is the optimal order of graph vertices s.t. minimizes edges to later vertices a well-known problem?

I'm a little unfamiliar with graph theory, and I found an interesting problem in my work that I do not know if its already well-known or can be easily mapped to another one. If I were to express the ...
CatOsMandros's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
51 views

How the $EX(f)$ is evaluated in symbolic model checking?

I was reading the symbolic model checking, So there it has mentioned that we can represent the set of states and transition relations of any transition system with the help of ROBDDs. I was trying to ...
Sujit Kumar Muduli's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
260 views

Framework or tools to generate theorem prover/solver/reasoner for new logic

I have new logic which has syntax and semantics in usual natural languages and I have to create theorem prover/solver/reasoner for this logic. Is there framework or tool set that can generate such ...
TomR's user avatar
  • 1,401
1 vote
1 answer
224 views

Using SMT Solvers in formula checking

I'm currently working on a static analysis work in which I need to check whether a given formula is met or not. I hope the following example clarifies my requirement. Suppose we have a list of three-...
frogatto's user avatar
  • 121
6 votes
1 answer
800 views

Exponential example for simplex used in SMT solvers

The original simplex algorithm requires an exponential number of pivot operations in the worst case, e.g., if run on the Klee-Minty example [3,4]. What about the simplex algorithm used in SMT solvers ...
Ayrat's user avatar
  • 1,075
2 votes
1 answer
53 views

SMT solves with functions for free varibles

So this sounds like this might lead to an undecidable theory but I thought I would give it a try and ask about it after I found nothing on the subject. I am somewhat interested in finding functions ...
Jake's user avatar
  • 3,810
5 votes
2 answers
491 views

Using SMT solvers to generate random solutions to given predicate

I am interested in generating random solutions to predicates. I only need SMT for integers with the following predicates/functions <, >, <=, >=, ==, !=, +, * The algorithm I want should produce ...
Jake's user avatar
  • 3,810
5 votes
0 answers
189 views

Introduction to bounded model checking that describes model generation

Most of the tutorials I have found on model checking and bounded model checking start with, the model is given as a Kripke Structure M = (S,I,T,L) where S is a set of states, I is a set of initial ...
Jonathan Gallagher's user avatar
18 votes
3 answers
3k views

Why is unification so important to inference engines?

I am learning Automated Theorem Proving / SMT solvers / Proof Assistants by myself and post a series of questions about the process, starting here. I keep reading about the Unification Algorithm. ...
Guy Coder's user avatar
  • 5,101
16 votes
2 answers
463 views

Why do some inference engines need human assistance while others don't?

I am learning Automated Theorem Proving / SMT solvers / Proof Assistants by myself and post a series of questions about the process, starting here. Why is it that automated theorem provers, i.e. ACL2,...
Guy Coder's user avatar
  • 5,101