# Questions tagged [terminology]

Questions about how specific notions have to be understood as well as conventions of notation.

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### Word that describes text transformation into a code with data loss

I am working with a piece of software code which transforms a character array into a single integer. For example, if I have the array [ a, b, c ], then it becomes ...
82 views

### Does the concept of "side-effect" predate functional programming?

When I was reviewing a book, I saw that there's a sentence claiming "side effect is a term coming from the domain of functional programming". I would think that the concept existed before ...
36 views

### Terminology for multiply visiting walks of directed graphs

In phrasing an information model for consumption-optimized RDF-like data (full context at 1 for the curious), I'm looking for any established term for X as used here: Given is a directed rooted graph....
183 views

### Topological sort with minimum maximal distance in array

I have a DAG that admits many possible topological sorts. I want to construct one that has the minimum maximum distance between a node and its neighbours in an array storing the nodes in sorted order. ...
48 views

### basic terminology

Suppose we have two computers whose performance is P1 and P2 respectively when P2=d⋅P1. What is the most accurate name for d? Is the term "transition factor" appropriate? Additional ...
54 views

### What does “linear” in Linear Temporal Logic refer to?

Consider the term linear temporal logic (in the meaning of linear-time temporal logic). In linear temporal logic, what does linear refer to: to temporal or to logic? If I interpret http://en....
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### Constraining function inputs; what concept/terminology am I looking for?

A function takes some set of inputs and creates a set of outputs; however there will be some set of invalid inputs. For example say we have F(a,b) => a / b and we constrain 'a' & 'b' to be ...
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### Definition of static property of object in OOP

Grady Booch in Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications says: The state of an object encompasses all of the (usually static) properties of the object plus the current (usually dynamic) ...
18 views

### Does this Hamming-like algorithm for solving a permutation of an address space have a name?

I'm working on reverse engineering the bit stream format of an FPGA, in particular regarding the address translation of the BRAM (block RAM), but the algorithm could in general be used for any ...
62 views

### A program which works "digitally" and a program that works "analogue"

I have noted that in several very unrelated human natural languages, people often confuse the term "virtual" with "digital". As for Computer Science, is it correct to categorize ...
69 views

### Halts for all rejects, but might accept/loop otherwise?

If a Turing machine halts for all rejects of L but might accept/loop otherwise, how is L's recognizability classified? Recognizability Decidability ${\langle L\rangle}$ ${\langle \overline{L}\rangle}$...
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### Can partially observable MDPs be fully observable nonetheless?

I've read through a few definitions of a partially observable environment/MDP, and I need confirmation whether the partial observability is really a generalization of a MDP (misnomer) and not a ...
29 views

### Given a vertex in a digraph, is there a standard term for (the vertices reachable from it) union (the vertices reaching it)?

Question in title. Looking for whether there is a term that is, if not widely understood, at least citeable to a source. This is equivalent to asking for the set of nodes that are comparable to the ...
78 views

### What makes a computer program modular?

Consider: Constants and variables If-then-else-elseif statements Procedures and loops The very fact that a program is comprised of two or more files (instead just from one large file) Each one of ...
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### Is the name 'class' from 'Complexity class' came from ZF set theory?

I just want to know if people in the complexity initiated the name 'class' because the term 'class' in Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory or not? For me, I assume the answer is Yes; because it doesn't seem ...
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### Can a data abstraction use a class as a field, parameter, or return type?

I think that everyone will agree that the following class achieves data abstraction (hiding of its internal representation): ...
41 views

### Effectively decidable vs. noneffectively (or ineffectively) decidable

The introduction of https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0001870882900482 starts with the following sentence: The word problem for commutative semigroups is effectively decidable. I ...
23 views

### Is a constant literal an example of a built-in?

My understanding is that in a programming language, built-ins are bindings that exist without the user having to make them. (Like + to its referent, for example.) ...
43 views

### Terms related to optimal scheduling

I am studying a certain theoretical optimization problem related to scheduling, and I am confused by the different terms used in the literature for such problems. In particular, I found the following ...
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### How do I call it when on Multi-threading I have a depency on a value that still doesn't exist?

On Multi-threading if I have multiple threads trying to access a single value I have a race condition. What is the name given if the condition is that I'm trying to ...
27 views

### What do HC and HL (hamiltonian graph problems) stand for?

Hopefully, this question is fine. I'm referring to the NP-complete problems regarding hamiltonian graphs. I suppose the C in HC is from Cycle or Circuit. It seems like Circuit is more popular. HL (...
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### Are the definitions of loop in CS and in programming (standard/common) identical?

Are the definitions of loop in CS and in programming (standard/common) identical? If not, what is the main difference / what are the main differences?
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### What's the name of this packing problem?

I'm trying to pack sets of intervals, to find distinct buckets of intervals. The buckets should not be overlapping. For example if I have these intervals: ...
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### What is the difference between Partition and Division?

While reading graph theory, I came across different definitions where they use partitions and divisions, I was wondering, are these terms same or different? Can anyone explain me their difference in ...
27 views

### Algorithmic information theory with stochastic algorithms?

Suppose we define a class of algorithms that is allowed to sample i.i.d. Bernoulli bitstrings of arbitrary length, and use these to generate outputs. If we are allowed to use algorithms like this, ...
42 views

### How does a computer direct the processing of information

So I'm reading Introduction to computing systems:From bits and gates to C and beyond, and the author states that a CPU is the mechanism that ...directs the processing of information. Which is ...
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### How 'Avalanche Effect' got its name?

I wonder how or why Avalanche Effect got its name. Avalanche Effect is a desirable property of cryptographic algorithms, wherein if an input is changed slightly (...
60 views

### Words of the same length in a language

Let $L\subseteq\Sigma^*$ be a language, where $\Sigma$ is a set, and let $n\in\mathbb N$. I am wondering if there is some good terminology for $L\cap\Sigma^n$. Of course I could say "the set of ...
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### Is there a name for an "array with no holes"?

How would you call an array [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...] that has (and ensures) the property of not having any undefined values through all its length. "Dense" could work but it's not exactly what I ...
49 views

### Combinator terminology: What is "strong" about strong composition?

A strong composition operator seems to be very fundamental. (Hindley and Seldin use the notation S for "strong" composition combinator). It abstracts the pattern $f(x, g(x))$, i.e. a direct ...
26 views

### Correct terminology for $P1;P2$?

This question is about the correct terminology. Let $P1$ and $P2$ be two LOOP programs. Then $P1;P2$ is also a LOOP program, which executes $P1$ and then executes $P2$. Would this be called ...
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### What is the name of this type of program optimization where two loops operating over common data are combined into a single loop?

On an imperative programming language, let us consider the following program: ...
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### What is the difference between Big O and asymptotic notation?

Are the two interchangeable or is there a difference?
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### Is Conjunctive Normal Form or not?

I have one formula that I do not understand why it is CNF and one that is not CNF, namely. p && !q (NOT NCF) and !!p(CNF). According to the exercise where I found these examples, 1 is not ...
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### Map data structure terminology

I'm looking for the correct terminology in regard to map (dictionary) data structure. When I'm talking about the semantics of the values stored in map in the direction from keys to values, I'd say, ...
171 views

### What does "associative" exactly mean in "n-way set-associative cache"?

I'm trying to grasp what does associative actually mean in n-way set-associative cache. I understand n-way set-associative cache as a concept; n is the degree of ...
37 views

### Find subgraphs that can only be reached by two nodes

I want to find subgraphs in a graph that are only connected to the rest of the graph by two nodes; for example, node A is connected to the rest of the graph, as well as node F, but nodes B-E are only ...
27 views

### What is a good reference for NP hardness in the machine learning/optimization/operations research context?

I am reading some papers in machine learning and at the very beginning (introduction) you will see statements of theorems that says, for example: Theorem 1.1. For any constant ϵ > 0, it is NP-hard ...
27 views

### Calculus for Communicating Systems vs. Calculus of Communicating Systems

Robin Milner uses both terms: Calculus for Communicating Systems and Calculus of Communicating Systems and, AFAIK, writes CCS for both. Is there any difference between the two? Is there a difference ...
164 views

### Origin of "Cookie" in Computing?

"Cookies" are a user-facing computing construct. They are codified in many technical specifications, including the earliest reference in an HTTP spec, RFC 2109, published February 1997. Many ...
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### How to properly name the two types of RAM in a Paper?

How do I name VRAM and RAM properly in a paper? "Video RAM" is clear but the "normal" RAM? Is it called "CPU RAM" or "Processor RAM" or "Main RAM" or ...
223 views

### Does the term "continuity" have a different meaning in maths and in CS?

I ask this question because of some statements in the question "What is the 'continuity' as a term in computable analysis?" making me suspicious. I'm engineer, not computer scientist, so I ...
58 views

### Is there a name for X when X bitwise OR Y is Y?

I'm wondering if there is a mathematical or computer science term for a number X such that Y | X = Y? For example: ...
4k views

### What is it called when f(g(x)) = x?

There are a couple of function pairs which give the identity when composed, e.g., decrypt(encrypt(value)) == value ...
50 views

### Is there any official terminology about something like double quotes "" grammar?

In many programming language string is a token. For example: ...
66 views

### What's the meaning of linguistics?

In the programming language theory world, there are two important terminologies, i.e syntax, and semantics. I can understand these two terminologies: syntax is about sentence's structure (e.g. a valid ...
47 views

### Consistent theory based on L and not(A->A) is a theorem

I am working on this problem in which I have a theory $T$ based on language $\mathcal{L}$ and the only information we have is that T is consistent and $\vdash \lnot(A \rightarrow A)$. Given this ...
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### If X is in NP then $\overline{X}$ is in NP. True, false or "we don't know"? Why?

If X is in NP then $\overline{X}$ is in NP. True, false or "we don't know"? Why?
Are there variations of the classic graph coloring problem that the number of neighbors in the same color is limited but not zero (in the original problem the limit is zero)? Problem: Given a graph $G$...