Questions tagged [terminology]

Questions about how specific notions have to be understood as well as conventions of notation.

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22 views

Keywords/terminology for using "extra" information in search problems?

I am trying to find references on a particular idea, but I don't know which keywords to use in a google search. the idea is: as an example, consider graph search. maybe the problem is: find a path ...
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1answer
339 views

What is the meaning of max() in intro. to algorithms?

I'm reading chapter 3(growth functions) of CLRS and in giving an example of proving theta for a standard quadratic function the book gives the following value for $n_0 = 2 \cdot max(|b|/a, \sqrt{|c|/a}...
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1answer
83 views

AVL Rotations Abbreviations

I read that there are 4 types of rotations: Left rotation Right rotation Left-Right rotation Right-Left rotation What are the corresponding abbreviations: RL,LR,RR,LL? Is there a reference how to ...
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1answer
35 views

Linear ordering of all subsets of size k

I was wondering if there is an obvious way to 'name' the ${n \choose k}$ subsets of size $k$ of the integers from $1$ to $n$. So I am looking for a bijection from the subsets of $\{1,\ldots, n\}$ into ...
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1answer
110 views

Name for the tree formed after collapsing cycles

What do you call a structure which becomes a tree after collapsing cycles (so the new vertices are the old faces)? For instance, the digraph (given by an NFA; ignore edge labels please) below becomes ...
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Is there a distinction between pointers and references? [closed]

If so, what are the similarities and differences between the two? I’ve only worked with properties while programming.
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2answers
5k views

Is "super-exponential" a precise definition of algorithmic complexity?

I cannot seem to find a precise definition of what "super-exponential" is supposed to refer to when one's talking about an algorithm's time complexity. For instance, if an algorithm runs for $nC(n-1)$...
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4answers
14k views

Dynamic Programming vs Memoization

I am having trouble to understand dynamic programming. Mainly because of its name. As far as I understand, it's just another name of memoization or any tricks utilizing memoization. Am I ...
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1answer
154 views

How hash-table and hash-map are different?

In the context of CS, how the hash-table and hash-map are different? I was watching a part of "Algorithm with Swift" video in Udacity, and I discovered the terms "hash-table" and "hash-map" are ...
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1answer
546 views

Understanding the "ordering of the four types of edges" in DFS

The following is Exercise 22.3-6 from CLRS (Introduction to Algorithms, the 3rd edition; Page 611). Show that in an undirected graph, classifying an edge $(u,v)$ as a tree edge or a back edge ...
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2answers
85 views

Tree with alternating types of nodes

Suppose that I have a tree where each node is either of type A or type B. Nodes of type A ...
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1answer
68 views

Are the definitions of recursively enumerate equivalent?

There are a couple of definitions of recursively enumerable, for example in Judah: $A \subset \mathbb{N}$ is called r.e. if there exist a $\Sigma^0_1$ formula $\varphi(x)$ such that $$A:=\{n \in \...
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1answer
72 views

Is there any sort of formal definition of terms like 'data type', 'abstract data type', etc?

If not (because I assume not) is there some kind of reference or book that provides some theoretical foundation to these concepts? I've been learning about data structures and abstract data types for ...
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575 views

What makes a proof assistant a proof assistant?

You open a code editor, define a syntax with lambdas, a few primitives. Then you invent some nice computation rules, some cool typing rules, and write a corresponding interpreter and "type checker". ...
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692 views

Is every regular/context free langauge decidable in LogSpace?

I know all the regular languages are decidable but not sure whether it can be done in LogSpace.
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2answers
598 views

search problem vs optimization problem

This is mostly a terminological question: Is there a fundamental difference between "optimization problems" and "search problems"? Apologies if this is an obvious question As I ...
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What kind of logarithm does $\log$ mean in Wikipedia articles?

Sorry if this seems like a dumb question, but what what type of logarithm is $\log$ in Wikipedia articles? Cheers.
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1answer
279 views

FPTAS definition

I read that a fully polynomial time approximation scheme (FPTAS) has time complexity polynomial in the input size and also polynomial in $1/\epsilon$. However, this leaves some ambiguity. For example,...
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336 views

Why does everyone say that NFA guesses it's next state?

In the picture above e is an empty string, and a is a symbol from an alphabet. Every book or professor I have heard from, says than when we make transitions in the NFA, the NFA must guess which state ...
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1answer
363 views

Is "sparse subtree" an appropriate term for what I describe in this question?

Given a tree, with some nodes annotated, such that the annotations form another tree, I'm thinking "sparse subtree" is an appropriate term for describing the latter tree as it relates to the original ...
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1answer
44 views

Does data entropy depend on the arrangement of the characters in a file?

From what I understand data entropy controls the limit of data compression and it depends on the probability of the characters in the file. Assuming that we have a file of size 256 bytes containing ...
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35 views

Is "Clean Graph" a Thing?

My professor uses the term "clean graph" to mean that the nodes have no idea of the topology. Each node is aware of its ID, but has no idea about parents or edges and so on and it has to discover. Is ...
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1answer
38 views

binary max and binary min [closed]

I'm reading a paper about constraint satisfaction problem and found a term "binary Max and binary Min" operations but I dont know the meaning. If someone know could you please explain for me? I ...
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2answers
4k views

Clique vs Complete Graph

Is there a difference between a complete graph and a clique topology? As far as I understand, both refer to graphs in which every possible edge between any two vertices is present. Is there a subtle ...
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1answer
108 views

Explicit algorithms and algorithms involving unknowns

Let's assume the you have two algorithms for computing some single but complicated number (e.g., the Ramsey number $R(5,5)$). Both are provided as high-level, half-formal textbook descriptions. The ...
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1answer
65 views

What is $C_4$ + two "ears" called?

A graph with $C_3$ + 3 "ears" is called a net graph. In general, $C_n$ + $n$ pendant vertices are called sunlet graphs. Is there a name for 4-sunlet graph minus two pendant vertices?
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3answers
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Is there any difference between Time Complexity and Running time?

Is time complexity and running time of the program/algorithm one and the same thing? Also, running time sounds like 'computer complexity'. As, it utilizes all the resources and give tangible time that ...
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1answer
265 views

Why is it called 'throwing' an exception?

I'm just wondering where the phrase "throwing" an exception came from. I understand "raising" an exception but I'm wondering if "throwing" has a reason or meaning behind it?
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How are lookup tables described from the perspective of complexity theory?

Lookup tables can convert a piece of computational time into space. I remember that it was a part of a complexity theory course, but I cannot recall how it's called in its terms. I know how to use ...
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25 views

What topics are related to "concept drift"?

The term "concept drift" specifically relates to a model changing over time. However, a similar phenomenon may manifest in, e.g., spatial data, where a topographical model changes behavior at a land/...
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173 views

Term for weak head normal forms that cannot be reduced in any environment

In my understanding, a lambda expression is a normal form (NF) when it has no redexes. For instance, $\lambda x.x$ is a NF, but $(\lambda x.x)y$ is not. A lambda expression is a weak head normal form (...
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676 views

What is the correct term for a probabilistically complete algorithm?

I'm wondering what the correct term for an algorithm that is probabilistically complete is. An algorithm is probabilistically complete if the probability of finding a solution, should a solution exist,...
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1answer
291 views

High Level Assemblers vs Compilers?

I'm reading the "Art of Assembly" 2nd Edition by Randall Hyde. In the book the author seems uses his own language called High Level Assembly (HLA). Coming from a C Background, I question how useful ...
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1answer
111 views

Do the classes $P$ and $NP$ include problems faster then polynomial?

I have being reading up on complexity classes (in Rieffel & Polak, 2011; pg149). I am slightly confused about something. Does for example $P$ (DTime($n^k$)) include all problems that can be solved ...
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1answer
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A Question about what it means to Compare two Vectors

Please consider the following question: Given an integer m by n matrix A and an integer m-vector b, the 0-1 integer programming problem asks whether there exists an integer n-vector x with elements in ...
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1answer
27 views

terminology: half adders, full adders

I'm very confused about the reasoning for these circuits being called 'full adders' and 'half adders' I've read before that 'half adders' are called so, because two of them make up a 'full adder', ...
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2answers
763 views

Correct term for a priority queue with unique elements

Is there a standard term for a priority queue which can only hold a single occurrence of any element? This would be a priority queue for which operations such as "raise the priority of element ...
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1answer
1k views

What are the primal and dual planes in the context of the point-line duality?

In computational geometry, we can define a duality between points and lines. The line is the primal (or dual) object of a point, or a point is the primal (or dual) object of a line. However, the exact ...
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1answer
415 views

Bisimilarity and Trace Equivalence in Labelled Transition Systems

I'm a bit confused regarding the relation between trace equivalence and bisimilarity. These lecture notes I found and a few others documents I've read state that "if an LTS is deterministic then two ...
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2answers
101 views

Definition of InLeft and InRight

So in reading I have come across the terms "InLeft" and "InRight" and I am unable to find a concrete definition for it. I have found it used in the specification for COQ, and in some notes on ...
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1answer
394 views

What is the name for a function's "return arity"?

The number of parameters a function has (and thus the number of arguments it can take) is known as arity. What is the name for the number of values a function returns? I'm not asking for the "size" of ...
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2answers
72 views

What mathematical terminology exists for "embellished trees"?

I'm looking for some pointers on proper mathematical (FP?, category-theory?) terminology. My apologies if the below is somewhat imprecise; I suppose the precision is precisely what I'm looking for in ...
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1k views

Latency and Throughput Bounds

Say that I have a superscalar processor and I am given the latency, issue and capacity (in clock cycles) for different instructions. What is the general formula for latency bound and throughput bound?...
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821 views

Why is the set for which a decision problem is true called a "language"?

When we have a decision problem, " does $f(x)=1$ hold?", we call the set of strings $x$ for which the answer is yes a "language". Why this strange terminology?
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353 views

What's elementary operation in Computer science?

What do Computer Science mean when they use the Term Elementary Operations?
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25 views

Is there a term for mixing deferred and eager evaluation?

I've written a model which utilises deferred evaluation for many aspects of its feature but in one instance of its use it is mixed with threaded eager evaluation for things that are expected to be ...
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2answers
103 views

What is the name for the comparison used in C's memcmp?

The C memcmp function (and strcmp) does a comparison similar to the function below for comparing integers: ...
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1answer
716 views

What does the "big O complexity" of a function mean?

What do people mean when they refer to the "big O complexity" of a function? What is the big O complexity of $9n^2 + 10n$, for example?
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1answer
73 views

What do we call a greedy algorithm that tracks the best $n > 1$ solutions?

A naive greedy algorithm tries to find an optimal solution based on the best solution so far, hence it may get stuck in local optima. To avoid this problem, we may keep track of the best $n > 1$ ...
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3k views

Why does soundness imply consistency?

I was reading the question Consistency and completeness imply soundness? and the first statement in it says: I understand that soundness implies consistency. Which I was quite puzzled about ...

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