# Questions tagged [turing-machines]

Questions about Turing machines, a theoretical model of mechanical computation capable of simulating any computer program.

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### What is the difference between RAM and TM?

In algorithm analysis, we assume a generic one processor Random Access Machine (RAM). As far as I know, the RAM machine is no more efficient than the Turing machine. All algorithms can be implemented ...
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### Can we write algorithms without conditional statements?

Regarding turing completeness, i read that for a language/machine to be turing complete it is required that it has some sort of conditional. Consider the factorial problem, we would typically define ...
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### Computability of equality to zero for a simple language

Suppose we have a tree in which leaves are labeled with a set of numbers $L$, and internal nodes with a set of operations $O$. In particular $L$ can be $\mathbb{N}, \mathbb{Z}$ or $\mathbb{Q}$, and ...
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### The first Turing machine

Does anyone know how efficient was the first Turing machine that Alan Turing made? I mean how many moves did it do per second or so... I'm just curious. Also couldn't find any info about it on the web....
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### Can you recognize or decide if a Turing Machine has an infinite sized language?

That is, can you build a Turing Machine that, if given a Turing Machine as input, can decide (or at least recognize) if the inputted Turing Machine has an infinite number of strings in its language? ...
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### Quantum Computing and Turing Machines: Are Turing Machines still an Accurate Measure?

In class last week, my professor commented and said that Turing machines are used as a standard measure/model of what is computable and are a helpful basis of discussion for that subject. She also ...
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### Is it decidable whether a TM reaches some position on the tape?

I have these questions from an old exam I'm trying to solve. For each problem, the input is an encoding of some Turing machine $M$. For an integer $c>1$, and the following three problems: ...
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### Undecidable problems limit physical theories

Does the existence of undecidable problems immediately imply the non-predictability of physical systems? Let us consider the halting problem, first we construct a physical UTM, say using the usual ...
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### What is the difference between a TM accepting and deciding a language?

Frankly I'm very uncomfortable with the material right now. There are some things I can understand, but many I still do not. My first assignment is asking me in one question (which I do know how to ...
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### Why is simulation by non deterministic Turing machine faster than a deterministic one?

A deterministic universal Turing machine $U_D$ can simulate a deterministic turing machine $M_D$ in $O(T(n)log(T(n)))$ where $M_D$ runs in $O(T(n))$. But I came across an exercise in Sanjeev Arora and ...
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### undecidable problem and its negation is undecidable

A lot of "famous" undecidable problems are nonetheless at least semidecidable, with their complement being undecidable. One example above all can be the halting problem and its complement. However, ...
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### Please explain this formal definition of computation

I am trying to attack TAOCP once again, given the sheer literal heaviness of the volumes I have trouble committing to it seriously. In TAOCP 1 Knuth writes, page 8, basic concepts:: Let $A$ be a ...
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### Where am I wrong?: “countability” and “recursive enumerability”

I have a a few fundamental doubts in recursive enumerability and countability and below, I have written what I understand them to be with proofs. But there are contradictions at the end. What is wrong ...
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### For the time hierarchy theorem, how is the input translated efficiently?

I'm trying to understand the proof of the time hierarchy theorem appearing in sipser's book. The proof requires a TM M to simulate an arbitrary TM N without too much slowdown. In particular, it is ...
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### Union of R.E. and Non R.E. language

Let \begin{align*} L_1 &=\{\langle M,w\rangle \mid M\text{ halts on }w\}\\ L_2 &=\{\langle M,w\rangle \mid M\text{ does not halt on }w\}\,. \end{align*} Here $M$ represents encoding ...
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### Prove that turing machines and the lambda calculus are equivalent

It is known that a turing machine and the lambda calculus are equivalent in power. I now want to try to prove this myself. I think proving that the lambda calculus is at least as powerful as a turing ...
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### Proving ALLTM complement not recognizable

A few definitions..  \begin{align*} \mathrm{ALL}_{\mathrm{TM}} &= \Bigl\{\langle M \rangle \,\Big|\, \text{$M$ a Turing Machine over $\{0,1\}^{*}$},\;\; L(M) = \{0,1\}^{*} \Bigr\} \\[2ex] \...
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### simulation of PDA with turing machine

How to simulate a non-deterministic PDA with a turing machine?
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### Are nondeterministic algorithm and randomized algorithms algorithms on a deterministic Turing machine?

An algorithm on an abstract machine is a finite sequence of operations of the machine. (Correct me if I am not correct.) However, there are different kind of algorithms, such as deterministic, non-...
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### Can the Lambda Calculus or Turing Machines model signals, callbacks, sleep/wait, or buses?

I have a deep appreciation for formalisms like the Turing Machine and the $\lambda$-Calculus, and enjoy studying them and learning more about how they relate to physical computers. I am now learning ...
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### How can I prove that the language of a read-only Turing machines is regular?

I find this, but I can't complete it, is there any other solution for it?
### If $L$ is recursive then so is $L^*$, and vice versa
Given a language $L$ over the alphabet $\{0,1\}$. Let $L^*= \{ w_1w_2...w_n | n \ge 0, w_1,...,w_n \in L\}$. Prove: If $L$ is recursive, then $L^*$ is recursive as well. If $L^*$ is recursive, then \$...