Questions tagged [undecidability]

Questions about problems which cannot be solved by any Turing machine.

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Halting problem proof is wrong, here is why

Instead of solving the halting problem, I will try to solve a less complicated problem in a similar manner. Can we write a function that will predict if two given numerical inputs are equal. I will ...
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Decidable questions of undecidable problems

Even if there is no general algorithm to decide if any program will halt, but there could be properties or meta-questions about the programs that is decidable. For example, given program $A$ and a ...
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I want to know where there is the flaw in my argument

I came across following problem to finding whether the following language is decidable or semi-decidable or not even a semi-decidable. $L: \{\langle M\rangle: M\space is\space a\space TM\space and\...
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Why is it not possible to prove that two Turing Machines calculate the same function?

I was wondering why it is not possible. Is it because the corresponding language is not decidable, or because of the fact that it is not guaranteed that a Turing machine halts on every input?
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How can $A \cup B$ be decidable if $B$ is undecidable?

My assignment says: "Determine if the following statement is correct: If $A$ and $A \cup B$ are decidable, then $B$ is decidable." The solution says: "Incorrect. If $B = H_0 \subseteq \{0,1\}^*$ ...
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What are some decidable problems which cannot be solved in real life(due to time and memory constraints)?

The first line of Sipser book for the Chapter- 'Time complexity', says that: Even when a problem is decidable and thus computationally solvable in principle, it may not be solvable in practice if the ...
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1answer
35 views

Language containing all unambiguous grammars

Suppose $L$ is the language of the unambiguous grammars. That is, a sentence $w\in{}L$ if it is a string that describes an unambiguous context-free grammar. Considering that deciding whether a ...
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Proof by reduction and Turing machines [closed]

This is a practice question I have, but I can't wrap my head around it. ............. Let L = {M | M is a TM that halts with exactly two words on its tape in the form Bw1Bw2B}. B = Blank Position the ...
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Hamming connectivity of regular languages

Call a language $L$ Hamming connected iff, for every pair of strings $x, y \in L^2$, where $|x|=|y|$, $x$ may be transformed into $y$ by a sequence of single symbol in-place replacements, so that ...
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Decidability of decision problems

Can somebody give intuition how to answer those questions? From one side I can say that most of them are undecidable because we can reduce the halting problem to them (or halting problem can appear ...
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What Makes A TM undecidable (using Recursion Theorem)

PROOF :We assume that Turing machine H decides ATM for the purpose of obtaining a contradiction. We construct the following machine B. B =“On input w: Obtain, via the recursion theorem, ...
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Why is a subset of a undecidable language decidable?

I have problems with the understanding why a subset of a undecidable language is decidable. We've proved in the lecture that $HALT$$_T$$_M$$=${$<M,w>$|M is a TM and M halts on input w} is ...
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Since the halting problem is undecidable, does that mean that there exists an always undecidable program?

The usual demonstration of the halting problem's undecidability involves positing an adversarial machine (call it $A_0$) that runs the decider machine (call it $D_0$) on itself and performs the ...
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undecidable problems solvable for humans? [duplicate]

are undecidable problems also unsolvable for humans? I mean I would think I could tell by reading the code of a program if it will halt for a certain input (which would solve the haltingproblem). ...
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Rice Theorem - Problem to understand and apply it

I have struggle to understand the Rice Theorem. My understanding of Rice Theorem: The purpose of this Theorem is to proof that some given language L is undecidable iff the language has a non-trivial ...
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2answers
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Undecidable languages

I'm confused on the definition of undecidable languages. Definition: For an undecidable language, there is no Turing Machine which accepts the language and makes a decision for every input string w. ...
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1answer
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How to detect infinite loop exist in linear bounded automata (LBA)?

The following theorem from Michael Sipser's book "Introduction to the Theory of Computation" states: $A_{\textrm{LBA}}= \{ \langle M, w \rangle \mid \text{$M$ is an LBA that accepts string $w$} \}$....
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1answer
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Differences between ALLTM and INF

The definitions of ALLTM and INF are as follows: $$\mathrm{ALLTM} = \{ \langle M \rangle \mid \text{ TM $M$ such that $L(M) = \Sigma^*$} \}. $$ $$\mathrm{INF} = \{ \langle M \rangle \mid \text{...
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Is finite subset of a set which contains all non regular languages a regular set?

Let A be a set which contains all non-regular languages. Then set B which is finite subset of A. Then will it be regular ? I know that A is not recursive enumerable set (undecidable). So I wonder ...
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I've proven my language undecidable what is left to prove it Turing equivalent?

Let us say that I have a computation model $A$. Let us also say that I have shown that $A$ can be simulated by a Turing machine. I have not been able to prove that $A$ can simulate a Turing machine. ...
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1answer
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Probabilistic halting problem

I'm a physics and math student working through Nielsen & Chuang's text on quantum computation and information. I don't have much experience in CS theory, so some of these exercises are confusing ...
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Which languages, decided by a turing machine are decidable?

How do I decide if a language is decidable and/or semi-decidable? I have theses languages: a) { < M > | L(M) ⊆ 0*} b) { < M > | L(M) contains at least one word of even length} c) {...
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To check whether the problem of a particular string being a member of CFG G is decidable or not, why can't we use a PDA? [closed]

Why can't a TM simulate a PDA? Then we can easily construct a PDA P which is made from grammar G. And contruct a TM that simulates P to prove that this problem is decidable.
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How can I prove the languages of incompressible words is undecidable?

I have hard time understanding the proof by contradiction for the claim "$L=\{x : K(x) \ge |x| \}$" is undecidable ". The proof is as follows : M' = " On input $n$ Enumerate over all $n$-...
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Is the halting problem undecidable or unrecognizable? [duplicate]

Is the Halting problem in the class of undecidable problems, or it is just in the set of unrecognizable problems? I understand that if it is undecidable, then it is also unrecognizable. I have seen ...
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Is a language whose Turing Machine doesn't halt for some positive cases but for others does not recursive?

Say language $L$ is recursively enumerable, but not recursive. Say $a$ and $b$ are symbols of the alphabet and $w$ a word. Say we have the following language: $L' = \{ aw | w \in L \} \cup \{ bw | w \...
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Is halts-if-valid decideable?

I have a suspicion that Turing's famous proof that the halting problem is undecidable may not prove exactly what people assume that it proves. It may only prove that it is possible to limit the ...
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Is function `number of TM which terminates on an empty word` computable?

Let f: N → N be a function where ...
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Does there exist an undecidable problem such that the answer is YES for exactly one input to a UTM, and NO for all others?

Suppose I have a universal Turing Machine (UTM) which accepts some input in binary. Is there a computational problem such that the answer to the problem is YES (accepting) for exactly one input (and ...
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1answer
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Reduction to proof undecidability of the problem: machine M and N accept infinitely many words

I am struggling with the following problem: Decide whether this problem is decidable or not: For two given Turing Machines M and N, there exists infinitely many words accepted by both machine M and ...
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How to prove the language of Turing machines that run at most $4|x|^2$ steps is not recursive?

I am trying to prove that the language $$ L=\{M\mid M\text{ is a TM and for all }x\in \Sigma^*\text{ with }|x|>2, M\text{ on }x\text{ runs at most }4|x|^2\text{ steps}\} $$ belongs to Co-RE but ...
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Did Wheeler really believe that physics was undecidable?

John Archibald Wheeler was a famous physicist It has been stated that he thought that there was a strong connection between undecidability and quantum physics This idea was given an early ...
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1answer
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Is $L(G) \subseteq L(R)$ decidable?

Is the following problem decidable? Given a context-free grammar $G$ and a regular expression $R$, is $L(G) \subseteq L(R)$? It is given that the following problem is undecidable Given a ...
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1answer
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Is $ L = \{ a^n\ |\ a^n \not\in L_n \} $ Turing recognizable (recursively enumerable)?

Say $ \Sigma = \{a\} $, $M_1, M_2, ... $ is an enumeration of all TMs that recognize languages over $\Sigma$ and $L_1, L_2, ... $ are respectively the languages that are recognized by those TMs. We ...
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1answer
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Show that the following language is undecidable

$\{ M \mid M \text{ is a machine that runs in }100n^3 + 300\text{ time }\}$ I am currently stuck with this one. I thought of reducing HALT to M as the reduction seems legitimate to me: if the first ...
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1answer
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Is $L = \{ \langle \langle \ M\ \rangle \rangle \ | \ M \ \text{does not accept}\ 010 \} $ Turing recognizeable?

I'm working on the following problem: Is the following language Turing recognizable (recursively enumerable) ? $$L = \{ \langle \langle \ M\ \rangle \rangle \ | \ M \ \text{does not > ...
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How to prove the emptiness of intersection of two context free languages is undecidable?

Where can I find a proof that the emptiness problem for the intersection of two context free languages is undecidable? I searched on the internet but could not find anything helpful. Do you maybe ...
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1answer
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The problem of equivalence of a CFG and a RG? [duplicate]

Given a context-free grammar and a regular grammar, check whether they are equivalent. It's a fact that it's undecidable, but how could I prove it? I want to clarify that my question is not about ...
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1answer
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Undecidability of checking whether all words can be generated from a context-free grammar?

I know it's undecidable, but how to prove it? Let me explain the problem clearer. The problem is not to check whether some given word can be generated, but whether ALL words are possible to generate ...
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A question about decidable and undecidable problems

Maybe this question is not very smart but I really wanna learn this thing. also, I need someone who is familiar with printing 42 problem and zero program problem. This is the context: Consider the ...
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How post correspondence problem is undecidable?

An undecidable problem is a problem that cannot have any algorithm to solve it. Post correspondence problem can be solved using a brute force approach. Then how can it be an undecidable problem?
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Is reduction from A_TM to EQ_TM possible to prove EQ_TM is undecidable?

\begin{align} EQ_{\mathrm{TM}} &= {\{ \langle M,N\rangle : L(M)=L(N) \}}\\ A_{\mathrm{TM}} &= {\{ \langle M,w\rangle : \textrm{TM $M$ accepts $w$}\}} \end{align} I can do it using $E_{\mathrm{...
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Is the proof for the undecidability of $A_{TM}$ still valid if we change certain parts?

i have a question based on a question i saw exists on the site, but with wrong information in it and no answer there, so i am reposting it with valid information(cited wrong from the book). on page ...
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How to prove the set of Turing machines that accept a string and its mirror is undecidable?

I'm trying to prove the undecidability of the following language. $$L=\{\langle M \rangle\mid M\text{ is a Turing machine and there is a string }w\\\text{ s.t. }M\text{ accepts }w\text{ and }M\text{ ...
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Proving language K is undecidable using the diagonalization method

I have a problem proving the following properties of given language K: $K = \{< M > | M\ accepts < M >\}$ I am trying to prove that language K is Turing-recognizable but undecidable ...
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One counter automaton as a function

We can associate a one counter finite automaton with a function $f:\Sigma^* \to \mathbb{N} \times \{0,1\}$, where $f(x)=(n,b)$ describes the state where the automaton terminates when fed an input word ...
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Effects of changes in the proof that $A_{\text{TM}}$ is undecidable

In the proof that $A_{\text{TM}}$ undecidable we use the following machine: $D =$ On input $\langle M, w \rangle$: Simulate $M$ on input $w$. If $M$ ever enters its accept state, accept. ...
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342 views

Is it decidable whether a Turing machine M will reach state q on input s?

Given a turing machine $M$, one of its states $q$ and an input word $w$, will $M$ ever reach $q$ on $w$? As we are not given anything about the word length, I assume that we have a finite length word....
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Is the set of language decidable by some Turing machine computing in some given computable time bound decidable

Let $T : \mathbb N \to \mathbb N$ be some computable function. Then by $\mathcal C_T$ we denote the class of languages decidable by a deterministic Turing machine in at most $T(|w|)$ steps for an ...
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Why cannot we enumerate all Turing machines that have no fixed point?

The language $$ L_1 = \{w \in \{0, 1\}^\ast \mid \exists x \in \{0, 1\}^\ast\colon M_w(x) = x\} $$ ($w$ is an encoding of a DTM, $M_w$ is the respective DTM.) is not decidable, according to Rice's ...