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39 votes
1 answer
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Finding an $st$-path in a planar graph which is adjacent to the fewest number of faces

I am curious whether the following problems has been studied before, but wasn't able to find any papers about it: Given a planar graph $G$, and two vertices $s$ and $t$, find an $s$-$t$ path $P$ ...
Joe's user avatar
  • 391
38 votes
1 answer
2k views

Is it NP-hard to fill up bins with minimum moves?

There are $n$ bins and $m$ type of balls. The $i$th bin has labels $a_{i,j}$ for $1\leq j\leq m$, it is the expected number of balls of type $j$. You start with $b_j$ balls of type $j$. Each ball of ...
Chao Xu's user avatar
  • 3,093
31 votes
1 answer
842 views

Largest set of cocircular points

Given $n$ points with integer coordinates in the plane, determine the maximum number of points that lie on the same circle (on its circumference, not its interior). This can be done in $O(n^3)$ ...
chubakueno's user avatar
25 votes
1 answer
1k views

Compression of domain names

I am curious as to how one might very compactly compress the domain of an arbitrary IDN hostname (as defined by RFC5890) and suspect this could become an interesting challenge. A Unicode host or ...
eggyal's user avatar
  • 359
24 votes
0 answers
1k views

Can a calculus have incremental copying and closed scopes?

A few days ago, I proposed the Abstract Calculus, a minimal untyped language that is very similar to the Lambda Calculus, except for the main difference that substitutions are ...
MaiaVictor's user avatar
  • 4,159
24 votes
1 answer
752 views

Complexity of deciding whether there is a winning strategy in the following game

The sum divider game for $n$ starts with the set $M_0 = \{1,\dots,n\}$. Player A chooses a number $m_1$ from $M_0 \setminus \{1\}$ and B has to choose a divider $m_2$ of $m_1$ from $M_1 = M_0 \...
frafl's user avatar
  • 2,319
20 votes
1 answer
2k views

Could min cut be easier than network flow?

Thanks to the max-flow min-cut theorem, we know that we can use any algorithm to compute a maximum flow in a network graph to compute a $(s,t)$-min-cut. Therefore, the complexity of computing a ...
D.W.'s user avatar
  • 162k
19 votes
1 answer
527 views

Is finding a weight-balanced tree NP-hard?

In the following, we consider binary trees where only the leaves have weights. Let $T$ be a binary tree and $W(T)$ be the sum of the weights of its leaves. Let $T.l$ and $T.r$ be the left child and ...
rex123's user avatar
  • 316
19 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why hasn't functional programming researched dynamic trees?

Dynamic trees play an important role in solving problems such as network flows, dynamic graphs, combinatorial problems ("Dynamic Trees in Practice" by Tarjan and Werneck) and recently merging ...
user avatar
18 votes
0 answers
324 views

Using logic to prove non-regularity of a language

A language $L$ is regular if and only if it is definiable by a sentence in monadic second order logic (MSO) over strings (J.R. Buchi, Weak second-order arithmetic and Finite automata; Z. Math. Logik ...
Vor's user avatar
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17 votes
0 answers
378 views

Is the two-color leapfrog problem in P?

My question is whether a specific decision problem is in P or not. It's straightforwardly in NP. The decision problem is a specific case of the general $k$-color leapfrog problem. I can already show ...
user326210's user avatar
17 votes
3 answers
902 views

Steps that guarantee exiting a maze

Given a 2-dimensional maze where you can give 4 commands "move up/down/right/left". Knowing the maze but not where the person is, how to find the minimum sequence of commands that guarantees exiting ...
seilgu's user avatar
  • 271
15 votes
0 answers
2k views

Barendregt's Variable Convention: what does it mean?

Barendregt's Variable Convention: If $M_1,...,M_n$ occur in a certain mathematical context (e.g. definition, proof), then in these terms all bound variables are chosen to be different from the free ...
alim's user avatar
  • 1,024
15 votes
0 answers
718 views

Test whether two languages are equal, when give in algebraic form

This sub-problem is motivated by Algorithm to test whether a language is regular. Suppose we have two languages $L_1,L_2$ that are expressed in "algebraic" form, as formalized below. I want to ...
D.W.'s user avatar
  • 162k
14 votes
0 answers
247 views

What can be proven regarding the differences in power between unary ECMAScript regex functions and primitive recursive functions?

In 2014, inspired by Regex Golf, I started exploring, along with a mathematician going by the name teukon, what could be done in the unary domain in ECMAScript regex that went significantly beyond ...
Deadcode's user avatar
  • 241
14 votes
1 answer
838 views

The difference between dynamic logic and temporal logic

To find the difference, I'd just encountered with assertions below about temporal logic in Wikipedia: another variant of modal logic sharing many common features with dynamic logic, differs from ...
user avatar
13 votes
0 answers
221 views

Why do we have to forbid non-conforming lower and upper type bounds?

(it's a repost of my unanswered question from [email protected] about Scala) In the Scala Language Specification, §4.4 Type Parameters, there is a requirement: The most general form of a ...
Vladimir Reshetnikov's user avatar
13 votes
0 answers
438 views

Choosing a subset of binary variables to maximize the sum of the highest $K$

Consider the following problem: Input: integers $n > m > k$; $n$ numbers $0 \leq p_1, \ldots, p_n \leq 1$; $n$ numbers $r_1, \ldots, r_n$ where ($r_i \geq 0$). Let $X_1,\dots,X_n$ be $n$ ...
Scarlet's user avatar
  • 231
12 votes
0 answers
223 views

Can you multiply complex 2x2 matrices in fewer than 21 real multiplies?

It is well known that 2x2 matrices can be multiplied using just 7 (instead of the obvious 8) multiplications in the ground field (Strassen-Winograd, etc.). It is also well known that complex numbers ...
Steve Linton's user avatar
12 votes
0 answers
282 views

Is extensionality for coinductive datatypes consistent with Coq's logic?

Given a coinductive datatype, one can usually (always?) define a bisimulation as the largest equivalence relation over it. I would like to add an axiom stating that if two members of the type are ...
Jannis Limperg's user avatar
12 votes
0 answers
944 views

Optimal meeting point in directed graph

Let $G(V, E)$ be a edge-weighted directed connected graph and $v_1, \dots, v_n \in V$ be some vertices. Let $d(a, b)$ denote the length of the shortest path from $a$ to $b$, for $a,b \in V$. I need ...
vojta's user avatar
  • 221
12 votes
0 answers
824 views

Fast algorithm for max-convolution with concave functions?

I'm interested in a discrete max-convolution problem, which is to compute $$r(c) = \max_{x | x \ge 0, \sum_k x_k = c} \left[ \sum_{k=1} f_k(x_k) \right] $$ for all values $c=0, \ldots, C$, where $x=(...
dan_x's user avatar
  • 221
12 votes
1 answer
5k views

Finding the longest repeating subsequence

Given a string $s$, I would like to find the longest repeating (at least twice) subsequence. That is, I would like to find a string $w$ which is a subsequence (doesn't have to be a contiguous) of $s$ ...
Dan D-man's user avatar
  • 534
11 votes
0 answers
129 views

Min-eigenvalue bound for a random d-regular graph

I need help proving the following fact: Let $G$ be a random $d$-regular graph with adjacency matrix $A$. The smallest eigenvalue $\lambda_n$ of $A$ should satisfy $|\lambda_n| = o_d(d)$. (In ...
Sam's user avatar
  • 156
11 votes
0 answers
168 views

Regularity profiles

A standard exercise in formal language theory uses Lagrange's four-square theorem to construct a language $L$ such that $L$ isn't regular but $L^2$ is regular. (Let $A = \{ a^{n^2} : n \geq 0 \}$. ...
Yuval Filmus's user avatar
11 votes
0 answers
886 views

Advantages of algorithm W over algorithm J for type inference in Hindley-Milner type system

According to A modern eye on ML type inference Furthermore, for some unknown reason, W appears to have become more popular than J, even though the latter is viewed—with reason!—by Milner as ...
Alexey Romanov's user avatar
11 votes
0 answers
251 views

Covering a complete graph with n copies of an arbitrary graph: NP-complete?

Given a complete graph $G$, an arbitrary graph $H$, and a positive integer $n$, are there subgraphs $A_1,\dots,A_n$ of $G$ (not necessarily disjoint) such that their union is $G$, and each of them ...
Theemathas Chirananthavat's user avatar
11 votes
0 answers
208 views

When can you "invert" an equation in the lambda calculus

Suppose that $M$ is a full model of the simply typed lambda calculus. Suppose each base type is infinite. Now suppose that $f$ and $g$ are two functions in $M$ (not necessarily in the same domain) ...
Andrew Bacon's user avatar
11 votes
0 answers
167 views

Denotational semantics of object-oriented languages

I am interested in denotational semantics of object oriented languages. Namely, what are the common/typical denotations of objects used in the literature? Is this an interesting topic these days? The ...
zpavlinovic's user avatar
  • 1,654
11 votes
0 answers
1k views

Alternative to Bloom filter for extreme parameters

A Bloom filter is a space-efficient probabilistic data structure to perform membership-tests on a set (see Wikipedia's page for a definition; I use the same notations below). I am interested in a ...
doc's user avatar
  • 391
11 votes
0 answers
382 views

Change in the distances in a graph after removal of a node

Given an undirected unweighted graph $G=(V,E)$ and a node $s \in V$, we are looking for a vector $\operatorname{diff}[]$, such that, $$\operatorname{diff}[v] = \sum_{u \in V \setminus \{v\}}{(d^{G \...
orezvani's user avatar
  • 1,944
11 votes
0 answers
413 views

Proof of PCP theorem

I am reading the proof of PCP theorem in Proof Verication and Hardness of Approximation Problems. The following paragraph appears in section 3 (page 4), "Outline of the Proof of the Main Theorem". ...
Karolis Juodelė's user avatar
11 votes
0 answers
2k views

Does Automatic Differentiation handle conditional branches, if yes how?

I'm trying to understand how Automatic Differentiation (AD) works. For simple algebraic operation, I get the chain rule thing. But, when the code contains conditional statement like ...
user avatar
11 votes
0 answers
182 views

(Slightly) faster simulation of quantum Fourier transform

Suppose I want to write a classical software simulator of a quantum circuit with $N$ qubits. When it comes time to simulate the quantum Fourier transform I can evaluate all $2^N$ states to determine ...
Wandering Logic's user avatar
10 votes
0 answers
102 views

Maximum matching with social distancing

Let $G = (X\cup Y, E)$ be a bipartite graph. Suppose $X$ contains people, $Y$ contains seats in a theatre, and each edge $(x,y)$ has a weight representing how much person $x$ is willing to pay for ...
Erel Segal-Halevi's user avatar
10 votes
0 answers
117 views

Can we say McCarthy and Hoare had the same objective in the 60s regarding a mathematical theory of computation?

I don't think there's any way to ask a very precise question here, so this might be considered opinion based. Nevertheless, it seems the question is clear enough because I'm asking whether these two ...
R. Chopin's user avatar
  • 237
10 votes
0 answers
210 views

Constructing a connected graph with given degree sequence

I am interested in constructing simple connected graphs where each vertex has a fixed number of edges (degree) ahead of time. I had originally assume I could use some modification of the Havel-Hakimi ...
Eric J's user avatar
  • 211
10 votes
0 answers
458 views

Is Agda sound as a proof system?

I was browsing Agda's stdlib source code, since I was trying to get into it seriously and therefore wanted to know more. I was amazed at that Agda is way more developed than I thought and it's ...
Jason Hu's user avatar
  • 632
10 votes
1 answer
192 views

Using naturality to prove $f: \forall\alpha. \alpha\times\alpha\to\alpha$ must be a projection

Suppose we have a System F term $f : \forall \alpha. \alpha\times\alpha\to\alpha$, interpreted in a parametric model which is a bicartesian closed category. I was wondering if in such context it is ...
chi's user avatar
  • 14.6k
10 votes
1 answer
480 views

is $P_{CTC} = BPP_{path}$?

I think that these two classes should be the same, but I can't find any literature about this and have a limited background on the topic. This is my reasoning, and I would like to know if (1) this is ...
Florian Dietz's user avatar
10 votes
0 answers
239 views

Minimum edge deletion partitioning of a planar graph

I'm interested in the time complexity of the following problem: Given an undirected planar graph $G=(V,E)$ and a weight function $w:E \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}$ (so weights can be negative, too), color ...
EmreA's user avatar
  • 153
10 votes
0 answers
162 views

Complexity class for probabilistic approximation algorithms with bounded error

What's the name of a complexity class of optimization problems that have "bounded error probabilistic approximation algorithms"? Bounded error probabilistic version of APX (as BPP is bounded error ...
Michael's user avatar
  • 580
10 votes
1 answer
461 views

Shift-resolve parsing - questions

I've recently came across a paper describing the parsing technique mentioned in the title. Unfortunately, the terminology used in said paper is somewhat beyond my comprehension, so I've been ...
Jakub Lédl's user avatar
10 votes
0 answers
1k views

Universal Turing Machine simulation with bounded time overhead

Is it possible to design a Universal Turing Machine in which the simulation time of a given Turing Machine $M$ is bounded by a factor of $\mathcal{O}(\log|\Gamma|+\log|Q|)$ of the original running-...
Kumar's user avatar
  • 367
10 votes
0 answers
241 views

"Essential" problem for MA

I am trying to understand different interactive proof systems, in particular AM and MA. Is there a typical problem for the complexity class MA as Graph-NonIsomorphism problem is for AM? Is there ...
Shitikanth's user avatar
10 votes
0 answers
133 views

Applying the graph mining algorithm Leap Search in an unlabeled setting

I am reading Mining Significant Graph Patterns by Leap Search (Yan et al., 2008), and I am unclear on how their technique translates to the unlabeled setting, since $p$ and $q$ (the frequency ...
mitchus's user avatar
  • 320
10 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why is the complexity of negative-cycle-cancelling $O(V^2AUW)$?

We want to solve a minimal-cost-flow problem with a generic negative-cycle cancelling algorithm. That is, we start with a random valid flow, and then we do not pick any "good" negative cycles such as ...
rumtscho's user avatar
  • 271
9 votes
0 answers
207 views

Complexity of frog game on graphs is exponential, or can we do better?

Frog game initializes by placing one frog on every vertex of a simple connected graph $G$ with $n$ vertices. A move consists of moving all $x\gt 0$ frogs from one vertex to another non-empty vertex to ...
Vepir's user avatar
  • 117
9 votes
1 answer
291 views

Polynomial time algorithm for finding a maximal monotone subset

Input: Some fixed $k>1$, vectors $x_i,y_i\in\mathbb R^k$ for $1\le i\le n$. Output: A subset $I\subset\{1,\dots,n\}$ of maximal size such that $(x_i-x_j)^T(y_i-y_j) \ge 0$ for all $i,j\in I$. ...
Klaas's user avatar
  • 141
9 votes
0 answers
336 views

Are there consequences for P ≠ NP that are unintuitive?

It's often regarded that the most intuitive answer to the question of $P$ vs $NP$ is that $P ≠ NP$. This is often illustrated with some consequences that would follow if $P = NP$ were true. Things ...
GregRos's user avatar
  • 515

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