5

"In-order" processors only issue instructions in order. Completion is out-of-order even on most processors that are called "in-order". "in-order" just means: if the processor needs to stall the issuing of the next instruction because of a RAW, WAW, or WAR dependence, it can't issue any other instruction during the stall. In ...


4

Cache coherency protocols (generally) do not enforce time, they enforce order. There is an essential (i.e. non-removable) race condition if two CPUs try to write to the same cache line at the same time. One of them will win and one of them will lose. That doesn't matter as long as all CPUs see them as happening in the same order. And if it does matter, that'...


3

Quite opposite from what this Mr. Duntemann says, there are no "obscure" reasons for this at all. It is totally arbitrary whether you interpret "no voltage" as 0 or as 1. Anyway, you don't distinguish between "no voltage" and "voltage". You distinguish between "voltage below a low threshold" which is one ...


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