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I don't have all the details, but I think the conditions are not easy to identify. I am aware of several categories of challenges: Many instructions may have undefined behavior (e.g., the opcodes are reserved, or the spec does not define their behavior for some inputs), and thus it is possible that their behavior might vary on different CPU models. For ...


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It will be HIT in the L2 cache as you have guessed it because L2 cache maintains a directory or a bit vector which tells in which of the private caches the modified state of the block is in. So when L1 of P0 requests it for the second time, L2 will supply the latest modified block.


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Android phones slow down because the software applications are rapidly changing. More features get added, and this makes the software consume more memory (RAM) and CPU time. Software keeps getting updated and each update results in it requiring more resources. In response to this, smartphone manufactures have increased the capabilities of the hardware they ...


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According to the textbook by Patterson and Hennessy, Computer Organization and Computer Architecture are not mutually exclusive definitions. In fact, Computer Organization is a proper subset of Computer Architecture. If you also look at the tag wiki of this site, it mentions Questions about the organization and design of computer hardware. which agrees ...


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Instruction execution cycle have multiple stages like fetch, decode, execute, write back. An instruction execute in multiple clock cycles (separate one for each stage). In pipelined execution multiple instructions are using different stages. Fetch stage access memory to get instructions. Other stages access memory to load and store operands. If there is a ...


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This is one of the reasons why most modern general-purpose CPUs have split L1 caches, one for instructions and one for data. (It's not the only reason, of course.) You see, modern CPU pipelines don't interact with a von Neumann-type bus at all, but directly with cache. As far as the pipeline is concerned, instruction memory and data memory are separate ...


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Having a powerful machine learning chip in your device allows you to do things that you probably have not thought of. Things like improving the images that your camera is taking. Cutting out the background and replacing it with a boring beige background, very valuable if you are in a video conference and want to show your face to people but not your home. Or ...


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It seems that the important difference between the terms as used here is that computer architecture is about useful things the system can do for its user (the programmer), and that computer organization is about how to build and connect "units" in order to create such a system. I will first note that your argument here is not correct: while I agree ...


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The cycle time/clock period is equal to the time doing actual work plus the overhead (represented, simplistically, as "pipeline register delay" in this problem). The time doing actual work can be approximated as the total time doing actual work divided by the number of stages, so the limit of time doing actual work as the number of stages ...


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Am I correct? Not completely It is wrong for 2 reasons: Assembly code is just a human readable version of machine code. So the conversion process to assembly can be skipped if is not required. Unlike other codes, assembly directly corresponds to machine code. Assembly code is dependent on the Instruction Set Architecture of the machine. Converting to ...


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This is a pretty good book: Mike Johnson, Superscalar Microprocessor Design, Prentice-Hall, 1991, ISBN 0-13-875634-1. Having said that, some of the original references are quite readable. For example: Robert Tomasulo, An Efficient Algorithm for Exploiting Multiple Arithmetic Units Lynn Conway et al, Dynamic Instruction Scheduling


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