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Usually, that type of corrupt rendering is caused by trying to open a document in software it wasn't meant for. For instance, if you try to open a Word document (.doc) in Notepad, you'll often get something like that. If you got this document from the internet, it's probably a pdf. Adobe Acrobat Reader is your best bet for reading this type of document. If ...


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"The questioner asked my why private IP address is determined in such range" IMO a good answer is "Because it has been established in RFC-1918; which is a "Best Current Practice" RFC :-) The three ranges allow private networks to "resemble" the class A-B-C subdivision (and probably this is what the questioner wanted to hear ...


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IP masquerade is the same as NAPT and the only difference is that when NAPT is used in Linux, it is called IP masquerade. The mechanism is the same, it's just the place where the technology is implemented is different.


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Firstly, I assume you know the purpose of route aggregation (if you need more clarification on that, feel free to post another question, as it is another topic by itself). Secondly, in this context, what Tanenbaum is saying is that aggregation can be done manually, but it is done normally done automatically by the routing processes. Manual aggregation is ...


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DNS Spoofing is a DNS attack that changes DNS records returned to a querier DNS Hijacking is a DNS attack that tricks the end user into thinking they are communicating with a legitimate domain name.


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One way of explaining the primary difference between DNS Spoofing and DNS Hijacking is given by this site as: While DNS spoofing is often confused with DNS hijacking as both happen at the local system level, they are two different types of DNS attacks. Most of the time, DNS spoofing or cache poisoning just involves overwriting your local DNS cache values ...


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In this context, a process is a normal computer application process, e.g., as defined in wikipedia: a process is the instance of a computer program that is being executed by one or many threads. It contains the program code and its activity. Depending on the operating system (OS), a process may be made up of multiple threads of execution that execute ...


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In this context a process is like a process on your computer, like a webbrowser. No IP is a separate lower layer under TCP and UDP. You can send raw IP packets from your PC and have them arrive on the other side of the world through the existing internet infrastructure (assuming relevant firewall rules allow them through). The IP header has byte to specify ...


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