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As part of the instruction decode phase, the operands are fetched for the instruction. In a very naive pipeline implementation, the operands for read will only be visible after the write instruction has written back its changes to the internal registers (so the last stage). To prevent such long stalls, a CPU can apply tricks like forwarding the store to the ...


The max delay isn't 200 and 350. In both cases, there is also a stage with a delay of 400ps, the clock speed is limited by that stage as well. The clock speed cannot be faster than 1/400ps = 2.5GHz either way, otherwise the slowest stage would break.


Ask yourself: How long does it take to load data from memory, and how long does it take to stop one thread from running and start another thread? Starting another thread would usually take a lot longer, plus a new thread would have the exact same problem, having to wait for data to be ready. An exception is hyperthreading cores. A hyperthreading core can ...

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