# Tag Info

### Why is A implies B true if A is false and B is false?

Humans are bad at logic until they have to employ it to figure out human affairs. Think of "if $A$ then $B$" as a kind of promise: "I promise to you that if you do $A$ then I will do $B$". Such a ...

### Can proof by contradiction work without the law of excluded middle?

You asked (I am making your question a bit crisper): "What formal guarantee is there that it cannot happen that both $\lnot p$ and $p$ lead to a contradiction?" You seem to worry that if logic is ...
Accepted

### Why does soundness imply consistency?

I recommend looking into formal logic beyond vague, hand-wavy descriptions. It's interesting and highly relevant to computer science. Unfortunately, the terminology and narrow focus of even textbooks ...

### Why do ¬, ∀ and ∃ have the same precedence?

Order of precedence is simply a notional convenience. There is no notion of strength here, just notation. All three operators are unary operators with notation "$\circ\ \cdot$", where $\circ$ denotes ...

### Why is A implies B true if A is false and B is false?

It's a convention -- we could use a different one, but this one is convenient. Here's what Terence Tao says: This is discussed in Appendix A.2 of my book [Analysis 1]. The notion of implication ...
Accepted

### How is ‘x + ½ = 2 and x ∈ ℤ’ an open statement?

$$x=1$$ $$∃x: x=1$$ The first is an open statement, since no value for $x$ is given. $x$ is called a free variable here. The second is a closed statement, because it talks about all possible values of ...
Accepted

### Predicate Logic Notation: What does a "dot" mean?

The dot just means "such that"; it's often omitted. The difference between the two formulas is the difference between "everybody has a mother" and "there is somebody who is everybody's mother."
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### What is the relation between First Order Logic and First Order Theory?

First-order logic is a mathematical subject which defines many different concepts, such as first-order formula, first-order structure, first-order theory, and many more. One of these concepts is first-...

### Why is A implies B true if A is false and B is false?

"A implies B" means (short) "if A is true then B is true". It means (a bit longer) "if A is true then I claim that B is true; if A is false then I don't make any claim about B whatsoever". Now ...
Accepted

### Algorithm for deciding alpha-equivalence of terms in languages with bindings

There are several ways to do what you want. One of them is to use a different syntax representation under which $\alpha$-equivalent terms are actually equal. Such representations go under the name ...

### Undecidable predicate logic is decidable by people?

The author is incorrect. A consequence of Godel's incompleteness is that any sufficiently complex logic has statements that are true, but have no proof of truth. If every statement had a proof or ...
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### How to understand quantifier without predication " ∀(λφ. (φ x m→ φ y))"?

The $x$ in $\forall x . P(x)$ is not an argument. It is a bound variable indicating which variable the quantifer is ranging over. Let us compare the situation to the definite integral, for concretness ...

### How is ‘x + ½ = 2 and x ∈ ℤ’ an open statement?

Whether it's an open statement or not depends on the structure of the statement, no on whether you can prove the truth value. Look at the second statement. There are three things you could substitute: ...

### What is the relation between First Order Logic and First Order Theory?

The phrase "first-order logic" has two meanings: It is a chapter of mathematical logic in which we study certain kinds of formal systems and everything related to them. It is a special kind of first-...
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### Why k- Vertex Cover is not in PTIME when it can be expressed in FO-logic

Your argument shows that for each fixed $k$, the problem $k$-VC can be solved in polynomial time (indeed, the algorithm enumerates all sets of size $k$ and checks whether they are vertex covers, all ...
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### Any Non-trivial Logic System Defined with only Equality

If all you have is equalities and uninterpreted function symbols, then you have an algebraic theory a la universal algebra. A singleton set (or a collection of them in the multi-sorted case) is always ...

### Can proof by contradiction work without the law of excluded middle?

I think your question boils down to "when doing formal verification with some sort of formal logic, what sort of guarantee do I have that the logic is consistent?". And the answer is: none. That's ...
Accepted

### Represent there are infinitely many in FOL

The existing answers provide examples of contexts where "there are infinitely many" can be expressed. However, there is an important sense in which "there are infinitely many" cannot be expressed in a ...

### Why is A implies B true if A is false and B is false?

Let's take an example. Suppose that we want to express that $a$ is the only element of the set $S$ that satisfies property $P$. Then we can write $$\forall x \in S \;\; P(x) \Rightarrow x = a$$ This ...

### How would one prove the pigeonhole principle with a SAT solver?

SAT solvers work in the propositional calculus, and usually accept as input a formula in conjunctive normal form. There are several different propositional variants of the pigeonhole principle; they ...

### Expressing 3-SAT in first-order logic

There has been a lot of work on formalizing mathematics, and in all of this work one needs to express definitions, theorems and proofs within the logic that one is using for formalization. This is ...
Accepted

### What is the difference between superposition and paramodulation?

This is late for you, but probably might be of help to others. I myself had asked this question and I wrote the summary of my findings to the acl2-help mailing list on 8 and 9 September 2013: https://...