# Tag Info

Accepted

### Why is this expression (A and ¬A |= C) entailed?

The statement $X\vDash Y$ means "every assignment to the variables that makes $X$ true also makes $Y$ true." Or to put it another way, "There is no assignment of variables that makes $X$ true but ...

### "Semantic Web", "Semantic Network", "Semantic Search", "Knowledge graph"(not Google's Knowledge Graph) and "knowledge base"

Semantic Web is a set of technologies that want to make the data on the web readable and understood by machines. The domain that semantic web is the web. Therefore the URI is in the bottom of the ...

### Do we have knowledge bases only because the logics are not automated enough?

Most logical systems in use are automated enough in principle. That is, there are algorithms which find the proof of a statement, if such a proof exists. The problem is computational complexity. Such ...
Accepted

### Can lambda-calculus be used for knowledge representation?

The λ-calculus was invented to be a logic and foundation of mathematics (1-4). The most well-known logic to use λ-calculus for formulae (as opposed to proofs in the Curry-Howard ...

### New Applications of Network Flow

Network flow has been used for all sorts of interesting and surprising tasks in computer vision and image processing. For instance, it has been used for image segmentation, image stitching, seam ...
Accepted

### Why is the certificate version of NP so ubiquitous?

It's likely due to the simplicity, because if you use the TM definition, which I assume is the non-deterministic TM solving in poly time, now you have to explain what a non-deterministic TM is, how it ...

### Trying to understand interpretation and denotation in FOL

Consider the expression $+(x,\times(y,y))$, which is the FOL way to write $x+(y\cdot y)$. If I substitute $x=3$ and $y=5$ and do the arithmetic over the integers, what do I get? I need to evaluate the ...

### What are the practical uses of ontologies?

Ontologies abstractly defined are "representation of knowledge": the object and their relations. Basically the ontology represent the knowledge exploited by the "intelligent" agent. Now in practice, ...
Accepted

### Are semantic networks ontologies?

Semantic Networks are in no way the same as ontologies. The accepted answer is therefore very misleading. Semantic networks (Quillian 1968) and semantic frames (Minsky 1975) emerged earlier than ...

### What is a good example to illustrate the difference between isomorphic and homomorphic representations?

You are probably talking about homomorphisms from logic, i.e. homomorphisms that just preserve your functions and relations: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structure_(mathematical_logic) I'm a bit ...
Accepted

### Minimum variable size if the information are coded in non-binary system

One hexadecimal digit contains 4 binary digits. You can compute this as follows: $\log_2 16 = 4$. Alternatively, $2^4 = 16$. So the minimal memory element will contain 4 bits' worth of information. ...

### What is the difference between Coding and Programming?

They are mostly synonymous. In that profession you can be called, or call yourself, a coder, a programmer, a software developer, or a software engineer. They all do the same job. If you call yourself ...

### What are the essential differences and similarities among "data", "Information" and "knowledge" in the context of Computer Science?

All are main topics in Information Science. Information a) needs Human Being, without Human Being no Information b) Information can be stored in Data for Computer Data a) stored Information b) makes ...

### How can I embed a Knowledge Graph in a vector space?

I would encourage you to start with this survey paper by Nickel et al.: https://arxiv.org/abs/1503.00759 Recent notable models: ComplEx-N3: Lacroix et al. Canonical Tensor Decomposition for ...

### How to represent symbolic knowledge using real numbers - theory about neural networks and natural/analog computing?

No, probably not. I think you're expecting too much from the current state of the art in word embeddings. Word embeddings don't magically capture all semantic knowledge. They don't reflect perfect ...
1 vote

### What books are there to learn to implement these graph algorithms?

For question 1, I suggest that you start with basic programming courses. If you understand how to program, and you understand the specific algorithms you are referring to, you should be able to ...
1 vote
Accepted

### What is the difference between type inhabitant and subtyping?

There is an obvious difference: you are an inhabitant (member) of humankind, but since you are not a collection of little humans you are not a subset of humanity. And as Bertrand Russell taught us all,...
1 vote
Accepted

### Is it possible to encode contradictory horn clauses without goal clauses?

If you only allow propositional letters p, q, r, ... and Horn clauses of the form ...
1 vote
Accepted

### What is the advantage of Rete algorithm compared to relational database engines?

As you say, relational databases are designed for, essentially, answering queries. Rete, I would rather say, is designed for the specific task of materialized view maintenance (i.e., keeping updated ...
1 vote

### Is it possible to use "and", "or" "not" as relation/predicate in an ontology? In order to represent causality?

The ontologies that are used today are mostly based on Description Logics (DLs). The basic building blocks of DLs consists of concepts and relationships between concepts where a concept represents a ...
1 vote

### Proving whether $\bf{K}$(Happy $\lor$Sad) $\implies$ $\neg \bf{K}($Happy) is satisfiable, valid or unsatisfiable

The formula is either satisfiable or unsatisfiable. Only when it is satisfiable, it may also be valid. To rule out that the implication is valid, show that its negation is satisfiable, that is, ...
1 vote

### What are the essential differences and similarities among "data", "Information" and "knowledge" in the context of Computer Science?

You're description is pretty accurate. There is no formal definition or precise meaning coming from a high level. There are only formal definitions in specific fields such as information theory for ...
1 vote

### Haskell type classes as ontological categories

The code in Listing 1 represents my attempt to test the claim. I have simplified the classes, while retaining that ability to test the original claim, which is repeated here: The Haskell code given so ...
1 vote

### What is the difference between Coding and Programming?

They are synonymous. Programming is the act of writing "source code". Coding is just short for "source code" writing. As someone else stated, nobody has ownership of official definitions of these ...
1 vote

### How to generate (Java) source code in academically acceptable way - using abstract syntax tree?

It highly depends on what is the domain you are working on, i.e. why do you need to generate Java Source code anyway?. Can you explain better what knowledge do you have stored in your knowledge base?....
1 vote

### How to conceptually represent attributes (characteristics) of an object in logics?

For this discussion, I'll use classical first-order logic. I'll interpret your term "first-class citizens" to mean those objects which can be quantified over or passed as arguments to predicates and ...
1 vote

### How to represent software code for code generation / automatic programming? How to integrate procedural and declarative knowledge?

Use some form of metamodelling : The outputs are represented as abstract syntax trees (ASTs): and constructed by a decoder with a dynamically-determined modular structure paralleling the ...

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