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10 votes
Accepted

Why is this expression (A and ¬A |= C) entailed?

The statement $X\vDash Y$ means "every assignment to the variables that makes $X$ true also makes $Y$ true." Or to put it another way, "There is no assignment of variables that makes $X$ true but ...
David Richerby's user avatar
7 votes

"Semantic Web", "Semantic Network", "Semantic Search", "Knowledge graph"(not Google's Knowledge Graph) and "knowledge base"

Semantic Web is a set of technologies that want to make the data on the web readable and understood by machines. The domain that semantic web is the web. Therefore the URI is in the bottom of the ...
張瑞剛's user avatar
7 votes

Do we have knowledge bases only because the logics are not automated enough?

Most logical systems in use are automated enough in principle. That is, there are algorithms which find the proof of a statement, if such a proof exists. The problem is computational complexity. Such ...
Andrej Bauer's user avatar
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5 votes
Accepted

Can lambda-calculus be used for knowledge representation?

The λ-calculus was invented to be a logic and foundation of mathematics (1-4). The most well-known logic to use λ-calculus for formulae (as opposed to proofs in the Curry-Howard ...
Martin Berger's user avatar
5 votes

New Applications of Network Flow

Network flow has been used for all sorts of interesting and surprising tasks in computer vision and image processing. For instance, it has been used for image segmentation, image stitching, seam ...
D.W.'s user avatar
  • 161k
3 votes

Trying to understand interpretation and denotation in FOL

Consider the expression $+(x,\times(y,y))$, which is the FOL way to write $x+(y\cdot y)$. If I substitute $x=3$ and $y=5$ and do the arithmetic over the integers, what do I get? I need to evaluate the ...
Yuval Filmus's user avatar
3 votes
Accepted

Are semantic networks ontologies?

Semantic Networks are in no way the same as ontologies. The accepted answer is therefore very misleading. Semantic networks (Quillian 1968) and semantic frames (Minsky 1975) emerged earlier than ...
Heyheyhey's user avatar
  • 131
3 votes
Accepted

Why is the certificate version of NP so ubiquitous?

It's likely due to the simplicity, because if you use the TM definition, which I assume is the non-deterministic TM solving in poly time, now you have to explain what a non-deterministic TM is, how it ...
mikinty's user avatar
  • 352
2 votes

What is the difference between Coding and Programming?

They are mostly synonymous. In that profession you can be called, or call yourself, a coder, a programmer, a software developer, or a software engineer. They all do the same job. If you call yourself ...
gnasher729's user avatar
  • 30.5k
2 votes

What are the essential differences and similarities among "data", "Information" and "knowledge" in the context of Computer Science?

All are main topics in Information Science. Information a) needs Human Being, without Human Being no Information b) Information can be stored in Data for Computer Data a) stored Information b) makes ...
Prof. i. R. Franz Plochberger's user avatar
2 votes

How can I embed a Knowledge Graph in a vector space?

I would encourage you to start with this survey paper by Nickel et al.: https://arxiv.org/abs/1503.00759 Recent notable models: ComplEx-N3: Lacroix et al. Canonical Tensor Decomposition for ...
rockt's user avatar
  • 21
2 votes

How to represent symbolic knowledge using real numbers - theory about neural networks and natural/analog computing?

No, probably not. I think you're expecting too much from the current state of the art in word embeddings. Word embeddings don't magically capture all semantic knowledge. They don't reflect perfect ...
D.W.'s user avatar
  • 161k
1 vote

What books are there to learn to implement these graph algorithms?

For question 1, I suggest that you start with basic programming courses. If you understand how to program, and you understand the specific algorithms you are referring to, you should be able to ...
D.W.'s user avatar
  • 161k
1 vote

Proving whether $\bf{K}$(Happy $\lor$Sad) $\implies$ $\neg \bf{K}($Happy) is satisfiable, valid or unsatisfiable

The formula is either satisfiable or unsatisfiable. Only when it is satisfiable, it may also be valid. To rule out that the implication is valid, show that its negation is satisfiable, that is, ...
Kai's user avatar
  • 917
1 vote
Accepted

What is the difference between type inhabitant and subtyping?

There is an obvious difference: you are an inhabitant (member) of humankind, but since you are not a collection of little humans you are not a subset of humanity. And as Bertrand Russell taught us all,...
Andrej Bauer's user avatar
  • 30.9k
1 vote
Accepted

Is it possible to encode contradictory horn clauses without goal clauses?

If you only allow propositional letters p, q, r, ... and Horn clauses of the form ...
Andrej Bauer's user avatar
  • 30.9k
1 vote
Accepted

What is the advantage of Rete algorithm compared to relational database engines?

As you say, relational databases are designed for, essentially, answering queries. Rete, I would rather say, is designed for the specific task of materialized view maintenance (i.e., keeping updated ...
441Juggler's user avatar
1 vote

Is it possible to use "and", "or" "not" as relation/predicate in an ontology? In order to represent causality?

The ontologies that are used today are mostly based on Description Logics (DLs). The basic building blocks of DLs consists of concepts and relationships between concepts where a concept represents a ...
Henriette Harmse's user avatar
1 vote

What are the essential differences and similarities among "data", "Information" and "knowledge" in the context of Computer Science?

You're description is pretty accurate. There is no formal definition or precise meaning coming from a high level. There are only formal definitions in specific fields such as information theory for ...
Lance's user avatar
  • 2,243
1 vote

Haskell type classes as ontological categories

The code in Listing 1 represents my attempt to test the claim. I have simplified the classes, while retaining that ability to test the original claim, which is repeated here: The Haskell code given so ...
Patrick Browne's user avatar
1 vote

What is the difference between Coding and Programming?

They are synonymous. Programming is the act of writing "source code". Coding is just short for "source code" writing. As someone else stated, nobody has ownership of official definitions of these ...
KingTermite's user avatar
1 vote

How to generate (Java) source code in academically acceptable way - using abstract syntax tree?

It highly depends on what is the domain you are working on, i.e. why do you need to generate Java Source code anyway?. Can you explain better what knowledge do you have stored in your knowledge base?....
bones.felipe's user avatar
1 vote

How to conceptually represent attributes (characteristics) of an object in logics?

For this discussion, I'll use classical first-order logic. I'll interpret your term "first-class citizens" to mean those objects which can be quantified over or passed as arguments to predicates and ...
ShyPerson's user avatar
  • 925
1 vote

How to represent software code for code generation / automatic programming? How to integrate procedural and declarative knowledge?

Use some form of metamodelling : The outputs are represented as abstract syntax trees (ASTs): and constructed by a decoder with a dynamically-determined modular structure paralleling the ...
Paul Sweatte's user avatar

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