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I think there is a confusion here between the number of memory addresses and the total size of memory that can be addressed. The microprocessor can access $2^{16} = 65536$ memory addresses, regardless of the size of data held at each memory address. If each memory address holds one byte ($8$ bits) of data then the total memory size that can be addressed ...


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There are two different address spaces, let's call them logical and physical. The addresses a programmer thinks about are the logical addresses, the page table translates logical addresses to physical addresses. As you point out, paging allows you to sparsely map the logical address space to the physical address space. But the bold sentences in your quote ...


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Your question is a bit vague, but it seems that you're missing one mechanism: dynamic memory allocation. Some data structures such as linked lists are heavily based on dynamic memory allocation, and so although linked lists are very similar to arrays in function, they are implemented very differently. Dynamic memory allocation is treated as a primitive in C....


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