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Here is how I think Erlang works. I believe Akka is very similar. Each process has a single mailbox. Messages are put into the receiver's mailbox by the sender, and fetched by the receiver using pattern matching. This matching process can change message ordering in the sense that the oldest message in a mailbox may not match, but a younger one does. In this ...


3

There are several possible semantics for asynchronous message passing, so there isn't a single answer to this question. It depends how the scheduler works. From a theoretical perspective, the simplest model (for some version of simple) is to not have a scheduler. Once a message has been emitted, it may be received at any time when the receiver is ready. All ...


2

Since the processes can only receive message from their adjacent neighbors, we could first have the all the processes propagate the maximum values through the grid in downward direction in parallel. Similar to a one dimensional array in which we have to find the maximum value. But here, we do that in parallel for n columns of processes. After this, the ...


2

While sometimes used as synonyms, to me, gossiping protocols are certain flavor of broadcast algorithms, where the message is flooded in a non-structural (commonly, random) way and spreads to the network. In contrast, a non-gossiping broadcast algorithm may, for instance, deliver the message via a (predetermined) spanning tree, rather than let the message ...


2

I'll try to answer your remaining question: what are analog and digital in computer science? The trouble is that these terms aren't from computer science. They are from the field called "signal processing". When someone says "analog computer", they simply mean that the computer is designed on principles of analog signal processing and ...


1

Before we had electric or electronic calculators, there were mechanical calculators. These worked with whole numbers, so they were digital, but they were powered by hand (typically by turning a crank) not by electricity. On the other hand, in the period 1900 to 1960 there were a variety of analogue computers that were powered by electricity. Even though ...


1

There is a distinction between continuous phenomena and discrete. It's the former than is called analog in computer science and the latter, digital. After all, the digits 0 and 1 are discrete. Whilst [0,1], the interval between 0 and 1 is continuous and so analog. (I don't know if you are familiar with the notation [a,b]. It simply means all numbers between ...


1

I will give you two main reasons why MPI and OpenMP dominate. The first one is that they are standards. There are several available implementations, and you can be sure to find them available on every possible supercomputer machine. This is strictly related to the concept of portability: you write your parallel code and, if you do not use anything else ...


1

The most mathematical paper I have seen on Behavior Trees is How Behavior Trees Modularize Hybrid Control Systems and Generalize Sequential Behavior Compositions, the Subsumption Architecture and Decision Trees. It is the only paper I have seen that defines Behavior Trees as a tuple e.g. A BT is a three-tuple $T_i = \{f_i, r_i, \Delta t\}$ Since Behavior ...


1

If you're looking for a single model that describes all relevant aspects of your system, you'll have a hard time. And building the model will take as much effort as implementing the system itself, if not more. Therefore, break the system down into different aspects, and consider different modelling techniques for each. Examples for aspects might be: The ...


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