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In terms of notation: Isn't XSD exactly what you are looking for? (barring all the "severe criticism" ...). Also not sure if you are looking for a notation convenient to hand-write, that's certainly NOT XML :-). Typedefs and preserves seem to have more of a mathematical basis, perhaps closer to what you are looking for. A related HN thread. I ...


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The notation $\|x_n - \mu\|^2$ stands for the squared $L_2$ norm of the vector $x_n - \mu$. The squared $L_2$ norm of the $d$-dimensional vector $v = \begin{pmatrix} v_1 & \cdots & v_d \end{pmatrix}$ is $$\|v\|^2 = v_1^2 + \cdots + v_d^2. $$ In particular, when $d = 1$, we have $\|v\|^2 = v_1^2$. The formula you state works for the Gaussian ...


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