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The problem is known as the Generalized TSP problem.


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Formal verification deals with checking that software and hardware systems are correct by definining mathematical models that capture beahvior of such systems. This is a large and active area, spanning verification of (components of) real-world hardware, operating systems, software, communication and security protocols, etc. All of these are modeled ...


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The classical reference on NP-completeness is Garey and Johnson's Computers and Intractability, which contains a compendium of over 300 NP-complete problems, with links to papers proving their NP-hardness. The only downside is that the book is quite old, dating from 1979.


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It's somewhat misleading to say that linear types don't prevent anything in 'pure' systems, because some things that are not considered pure become so when restricted with linear types. An example would be Fillinski's Linear Continuations. Normally, control operators are considered effectful, and results are non-deterministic depending on evaluation order. ...


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The brain works as a hierarchical distributed network of networks (hence heuristics). We attach meaning and prototype of objects as abstract concept. DNN was created to reconstruct images using fMRI. But this is not the whole story, you have to know three additional things to make a connection. Various networks or blending functions are individual on person ...


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Note: In what follows, I'm going to use the term "B-tree" to refer to the general idea of B-trees regardless of the variant, and "B+-trees" to refer specifically to B+-trees. You've correctly identified a real-word complication of using B-trees to index strings: B-trees are page-structured files, but strings are of arbitrary length. This ...


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If the counters are bounded by $k$, then the number of possible states is finite, so this is a finite-state machine, and emptiness for finite-state machines is decidable. In particular, if there are $c$ counters, each bounded by $k$, then there are $O(k^c)$ states, so emptiness can be tested in $O(k^c)$ time. Assuming the automaton allows nondeterminism, it ...


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