I don't know if the thing you are looking for exists, but here are at least some pointers:
Parameterized Algorithms by Cygan et al (free PDF version) has a chapter dedicated on the topic. This is slightly algorithms oriented, but contains structural stuff too.
Graph Theory by Diestel has one chapter, (12. Minors, Trees and WQO) on the subject, about 40 ...
This is likely to be a challenging task, and if you're not familiar with image classification, I suspect it may be beyond what you can reasonably do right now.
I would suggest you investigate classical image processing techniques. You might try applying morphological operators, such as closing (dilation followed by erosion) or opening followed by ...
By choosing a different framework of thought that does not attempt to ensure a specific bound we can do well in practice using an algorithm called regret matching.. The paper introducing this is called "A Simple Adaptive Procedure Leading to Correlated Equilibrium" by Sergui Hart and Mas-Colell
Regret matching is ensured to almost certainly ...
This is a pretty good book: Mike Johnson, Superscalar Microprocessor Design, Prentice-Hall, 1991, ISBN 0-13-875634-1.
Having said that, some of the original references are quite readable. For example:
Robert Tomasulo, An Efficient Algorithm for Exploiting Multiple Arithmetic Units
Lynn Conway et al, Dynamic Instruction Scheduling