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6 votes
Accepted

Help understanding ip address classes

The original division and allocation of IP addresses used a system called classful IP addressing. This is the division to which you are referring, in which a class A network would receive all ...
GxRxP's user avatar
  • 78
5 votes
Accepted

ip/tcp packet decoding without wireshark

My guess is that what you are seeing is a Level 2 Ethernet frame and therefore the preamble is missing. Also the Ethernet checksum seems to be missing. In this case everything seems to line up (the ...
Steven's user avatar
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3 votes

Why timeout in TCP is not a predefined fixed value?

the main reason for RTO to be variable is to avoid congestion collapse. if the timer is set to a too shorter value, there is a danger that the sender starts retransmitting packets, that are still ...
Effie's user avatar
  • 199
2 votes
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which ip and mac address is added to the header of data packets?

A packet only contains the final destination IP address otherwise it would be lost. On a Windows computer, type route print in CMD to see the routing table of your ...
user123's user avatar
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2 votes
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tcp congestion avoidance

When we are in AC mode every rtt(round trip time) the congestion window increase by 1(MSS). Here our current congestion window(cw) is 60 and we know that during transmission round t we get 3 duplicate ...
Noname's user avatar
  • 246
2 votes

Why timeout in TCP is not a predefined fixed value?

If I am running a high performance local area TCP network then I would want the timeout value to be low. On the other hand, if I am sending messages to a low performance, over loaded TCP server I ...
Bob's user avatar
  • 359
1 vote

Which one of the following is NOT a function of transport layer?

the answer to "is definitelly NOT is A." routing routing is done by network layer before i go in the next ones here is disabmiguity warning. B. and C. are performed by TCP which is ...
Effie's user avatar
  • 199
1 vote
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Go back n on server side

assuming that the client only sends and the server only receives and acks: (1) the server may or may not contain a buffer. Go-Back-N will function perfectly, if there is a buffer for only one packet ...
Effie's user avatar
  • 199
1 vote
Accepted

network address translation

Usually writing an ip address and a number after the : ,it means the number after the : is the port In the internal part: 192.168.0.2 is the private ip address of the host its his ip address inside ...
Noname's user avatar
  • 246
1 vote
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Is this applet implementation for the Go-Back-N ARQ protocol correct?

I'll address question 2 first, since it seems easier than the other one. The answer is simply because both transmitters begin tagging their payload messages from 1,...
Acsor's user avatar
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1 vote
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Go-Back-N Protocol not efficient?

The Go-Back-N protocol is often presented for didactic purposes as a first, maybe crude attempt at tackling loss of packets or of order in connection-oriented communications, without obeying the ...
Acsor's user avatar
  • 342
1 vote
Accepted

Why are processes on the internet not required to use TCP or UDP?

In this context, a process is a normal computer application process, e.g., as defined in wikipedia: a process is the instance of a computer program that is being executed by one or many threads. It ...
auspicious99's user avatar
1 vote

'Half-Close' figure of Data Communications and Networking, 5/e

The FIN segment consumes 1 sequence number as it does not carry data. ACK does not consume a sequence number. The ...
Shashank V M's user avatar
1 vote

binary representation of ip prefixes

For a netmasked IP address xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/N, convert each xxx octet in the address to binary. The masked address is the leftmost N bits with all other bits replaced with zeroes. So 10.0.0.2/2 ...
Kyle Jones's user avatar
  • 8,101
1 vote
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Source and Destination IP of TCP connection

If you consider the format of the TCP-IP datagram. Source Address: The 32-bit IP address of the originator of the datagram. Note that even though intermediate devices such as routers may handle the ...
Demotte's user avatar
  • 126
1 vote
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Duplicating ACKs and Window Sizes

In simple words: ack is the way of the receiver to tell you "i got data until some num now send me from this num",now if a packet is lost it means the reciver will not get its data. If i understood ...
Noname's user avatar
  • 246
1 vote

Urgent Flag of TCP, Computer Networks

They don't. The urgent flag doesn't affect the handling of the packet by routers. The urgent flag is an instruction to the TCP stack on the destination host, not an instruction to routers along the ...
D.W.'s user avatar
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