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6

The original division and allocation of IP addresses used a system called classful IP addressing. This is the division to which you are referring, in which a class A network would receive all addresses X.0.0.0-X.255.255.255 and have over 16.5 million host addresses. As designated below, the network bits in classful addressing are divided in 8-bit groupings. ...


5

My guess is that what you are seeing is a Level 2 Ethernet frame and therefore the preamble is missing. Also the Ethernet checksum seems to be missing. In this case everything seems to line up (the packet type inside the Ethernet frame, the IPv4 version, the IPv4 packet length, the packet type, i.e. TCP, inside the IP packet, ...). Then you'd read your ...


2

A packet only contains the final destination IP address otherwise it would be lost. On a Windows computer, type route print in CMD to see the routing table of your computer (which can act just like a router if you enable routing in its settings). Mine looks like such: =========================================================================== IPv4 Route ...


2

When we are in AC mode every rtt(round trip time) the congestion window increase by 1(MSS). Here our current congestion window(cw) is 60 and we know that during transmission round t we get 3 duplicate acks-so our window is now 30MSS,now we also know that from t to t+1 for instance our window increase by 1,so from t to t+10 our window increases by 10-which ...


1

Usually writing an ip address and a number after the : ,it means the number after the : is the port In the internal part: 192.168.0.2 is the private ip address of the host its his ip address inside the network,notice that we have 2 types of ip addresses: private ip address-which is the ip address inisde out network and public ip address which is our ip ...


1

I'll address question 2 first, since it seems easier than the other one. The answer is simply because both transmitters begin tagging their payload messages from 1, namely with nextseqnum = 1; you can see this is so for the sender from the top-left corner of the image you posted. Don't be misled by the fact that the receiver issues the sndpkt = make_pkt(0, ...


1

The Go-Back-N protocol is often presented for didactic purposes as a first, maybe crude attempt at tackling loss of packets or of order in connection-oriented communications, without obeying the constrains of Stop-and-Wait protocols, also introduced for didactic purposes. It is no wonder it appears inefficient -- it probably was never meant to be so. ...


1

In this context, a process is a normal computer application process, e.g., as defined in wikipedia: a process is the instance of a computer program that is being executed by one or many threads. It contains the program code and its activity. Depending on the operating system (OS), a process may be made up of multiple threads of execution that execute ...


1

For a netmasked IP address xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/N, convert each xxx octet in the address to binary. The masked address is the leftmost N bits with all other bits replaced with zeroes. So 10.0.0.2/2 becomes 00001010 00000000 00000000 00000010 which is then masked to 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000, because 00 are the leftmost 2 bits. 90.0.0.0/4 becomes ...


1

If you consider the format of the TCP-IP datagram. Source Address: The 32-bit IP address of the originator of the datagram. Note that even though intermediate devices such as routers may handle the datagram, they do not normally put their address into this field—it is always the device that originally sent the datagram. Destination Address: The 32-bit IP ...


1

In simple words: ack is the way of the receiver to tell you "i got data until some num now send me from this num",now if a packet is lost it means the reciver will not get its data. If i understood your question right then we can see the acks in the 12th and 13th packets are identical,the reason is because not data was sent between them to the reciver Now ...


1

They don't. The urgent flag doesn't affect the handling of the packet by routers. The urgent flag is an instruction to the TCP stack on the destination host, not an instruction to routers along the path.


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