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In modern papers, and unless stated otherwise, NP-hardness is one of the following: A decision problem is NP-hard if it is NP-hard with respect to many-one reductions. An optimization problem is NP-hard if its decision version is NP-hard. Sometimes, more informal notions are used. The most common one is probably hardness of approximation. When a theorem ...

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According to the Wikipedia article on magic cookie, it was used already in 1979 in the manpage of fseek. The talk page of the Wikipedia article on magic cookie discusses questions regarding the origin and meaning of the word. The following quote of Douglas W. Jones from the talk page nicely summarizes it: Once upon a time, I asked Dennis Ritchie about the ...

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I don't know if there's a name for such subgraphs, but here's something to get you started. If you require the subgraphs to be connected A polytime algorithm for $G=(V,E)$ would be: for every possible unordered pair $(A,F)\in \binom{V}{2}$ consider the connected components of the graph induced by $V\smallsetminus\{A,F\}$. Then consider the classes which ...

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"...the most common misconception that an algorithm and a pseudocode is one of the same things. No, they are not! Let us take a look at definitions first: Algorithm : Systematic logical approach which is a well-defined, step-by-step procedure that allows a computer to solve a problem. (Can be what's in the code-side Notes explaining the performance ...

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