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The function $$\lambda f.\lambda x.\lambda y.f\;y\;x$$ of type $$\forall X. \forall Y. \forall Z.(X \to Y \to Z) \to Y \to X \to Z$$ is often called flip. This is the case in Haskell (see here), and in some OCaml libraries as well (see here). According to wikipedia, people call this function (or combinator) $C$ in the context of combinatory logic (that name ...


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There is no exact answer to your question. The terms "programming model" and "programming paradigm" are not exact technical terms that have fixed definitions. Depending on a context, some authors might define "programming model" in some specific way, but that will usually turn out to cover only some aspects of what people understand under "programming model"....


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Given the tag combinatory-logic, the answer in combinatory logic is C, i.e. "the C combinator". Obviously, this name is not self-documenting or going to be obvious in even a slightly more general context.


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Do you need to guarantee that, in every sample, 50% of the objects are red, 30% are green and 20% are blue? If so, just make your array consist of $0.5\,N$ red objects chosen uniformly at random, followed by $0.3\,N$ green and $0.2\,N$ blue. You'll need to deal with the rounding error if $N$ isn't divisible by $10$. You can always shuffle the array if ...


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The Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) offers binarization: nltk.treetransforms.chomsky_normal_form(). The algorithm in NLTK implements the standard, straight-forward transformation into Chomsky normal form. It assumes the tree was generated via an underlying (context-free) grammar. This results in the deep trees in the bottom row (diagram in the question post)....


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Programming models bridge the gap between the underlying hardware architecture and the supporting layers of software available to applications. Programming models are different from both programming languages and application programming interfaces (APIs). Specifically, a programming model is an abstraction of the underlying computer system that ...


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