Briefly, one can't learn AI without it. Some of the main content areas of AI are based on logic: knowledge representation, planning, natural language semantics and reasoning. Have a look at the ...

First, unification algorithms are tricky. Studying other textbooks will help. Second, things will probably get clearer if you look at actual code implementations. Have a look at the online code ...

Usually $+$ means $\lor$, "multiplication" means $\land$, and $'$ means $\lnot$.

Let's try an example. Let's say you're trying to prove the following: Simple Theorem over the natural numbers: If $n$ is even, then $n+1$ is odd. What he's trying to say is that you don't need an ...

Ralph Merkle, a computer scientist at Xerox PARC, published a paper in 1989 evaluating intellectual processing power. He measured it in three different ways. Method One: There are about 1 quadrillion ...

By way of context, I'll assume the goal is to do unification in classical first-order logic in a fixed language $\mathscr{L}$. (Formatting and other corrections welcome.) Briefly, you can treat ...

LFG (Lexical-Functional Grammar) recognition is NP-Complete. Edit per request: Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG)  is a theory of natural language syntax, developed as an alternative to Chomsky's ...

See this paper for an extended discussion which includes the old Chomskyan center-embedding arguments that English, for example, is not regular. See this answer for an argument that natural languages ...

I'll assume that we're working in the context of classical propositional logic. The first thing to point out is that $\lnot(A \rightarrow A)$ leads to a contradiction: ($A \land \lnot A$). Since ...

For this discussion, I'll use classical first-order logic. I'll interpret your term "first-class citizens" to mean those objects which can be quantified over or passed as arguments to predicates and ...

Very briefly: Option 1 faces difficulties since certain connectionist models are incapable of learning natural languages. Option 2 faces grave difficulties due to many negative results, notably ...