I'm having trouble showing that $P\neq R$. Obviously $P\subseteq R$, but is there a decidable language which is definitely not (under all answers to open questions s.t. $P=NP$ or $NP=PSPACE$) in $P$ ?

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    $\begingroup$ Please don't ask a question in the title whose answer is the exact opposite of question in the body ("No" and "Yes", respectively). $\endgroup$ Jun 23, 2016 at 8:32
  • $\begingroup$ Possible duplicate. This one has some examples, too. $\endgroup$
    – Raphael
    Jun 23, 2016 at 9:24
  • $\begingroup$ In reply to @adrianN, I found both questions by googling "problems not in P" and following some links. $\endgroup$
    – Raphael
    Jun 23, 2016 at 9:26

1 Answer 1


Yes, there are decidable languages that are definitely not in P. The time hierarchy theorem says that P$\,\neq\,$EXP, so P$\,\neq\,$R, independently of the P vs NP problem. Any EXP-complete problem is definitely not in P: for example determining whether white has a winning strategy from a position in generalized chess ("generalized" in the sense of allowing a board of any dimensions, with any arrangement of any number of pieces, but otherwise following all the rules of standard chess).


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