Consider a context-sensitive grammar $G$, such that all the productions of $G$ have the form $A\to \alpha$ or $Ab \to \alpha b$ (in other words, the left context is always empty and the right context is either empty or consists of just one terminal).

Is the language defined by such a grammar necessarily context-free ?

In all the toy examples I considered, the original context-sensitive grammar can be enlarged into an equivalent context-free one.

  • $\begingroup$ Penttonen normal form has productions $A \to a$, $A \to BC$, and $AB \to AC$. Your productions are however less powerful. $\endgroup$ Feb 16, 2019 at 18:46
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    $\begingroup$ Theorem 1 here seems to imply that your grammars generate context-free languages. $\endgroup$ Feb 16, 2019 at 18:47

1 Answer 1


You could have written a paper bases on your discovery had you been living many years ago.

In fact, the paper Terminal Context in Context-Sensitive Grammars by Ronald V. Book, 1972 mentioned by Yuval proved the following theorem, edited slightly for the sake of current question.

Theorem 3. If $G$ is a context-sensitive grammar with terminals $\Sigma$, non-terminals $N$ such that every non-context-free rule is of the form $\alpha Z\beta \to \alpha\gamma \beta$ where $\alpha\in\Sigma^*$, $\beta\in\Sigma^*$ and $Z\in N$, then $L(G)$ is context-free.

The grammar in the theorem above is much more general than the grammar described in the question. In fact, if we restrict $\alpha$ to be empty and $\beta\in\Sigma$, we obtain the grammar described in the question.

You can check that article for a proof of the theorem as well as more insight into how to force context-sensitive grammars to be context-free. (You could probably write a paper if you solve the conjecture at the end of that paper.)

Here is one exercise that is within easy reach.

Exercise 1. If $G$ is a context-free grammar except one rule, which is of form $Aa\to Ba$, where $a$ is a terminal and $A$ and $B$ are two non-terminals, then $L(G)$ is context-free.

  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for your feedback. Unfortunately I am away from home at the moment and it'll be several weeks before I can access that article. Meanwhile I'll have a go at the exercise ... $\endgroup$ Feb 17, 2019 at 7:23

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