Define a sequential circuit model be a directed graph with each vertices being a boolean gate. The difference is that we allow cycles in the boolean circuit. Each cycle will determine a boolean equation.

For example, constructing a loop by connecting the input and output of a negation gate will yield the equation $x=\lnot x$, which is not satisfiable. Given such circuit, the "satisfiability" in the sense naturally occur. My question is:

Is determining whether this circuit can be satisfied known to be hard or easy? Furthermore, is finding or enumerating these configuration known to be hard or easy?

  • $\begingroup$ Have you tried reducing SAT to your problem? $\endgroup$ May 4, 2019 at 21:37
  • $\begingroup$ Oh indeed, I just find it to be NP-hard. Reduction is by adding a xor loop to examine the circuit. Namely, $y=y\otimes \lnot A(x)$. $\endgroup$ May 4, 2019 at 21:42
  • $\begingroup$ On the other hand, is it NP-complete? $\endgroup$ May 4, 2019 at 21:46
  • $\begingroup$ Well, is it in NP? Can you verify a solution? $\endgroup$ May 4, 2019 at 21:53
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    $\begingroup$ Now you can answer your own question. $\endgroup$ May 4, 2019 at 22:09

1 Answer 1


OK so now I figured this out. The problem is $NP$-complete. We could simply verify an assignment by checking each gate as an equation. For solving SAT of boolean function A(x), simply construct a equation, $y=y\otimes\lnot A(x)$ would suffice.


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