Could someone explain to me what component(s) are responsible for translating binary into ASCII/UNICODE? For example, is it an assembly program that sets up a 1-1 correspondence between characters and their binary equivalents, which is then loaded into ROM during manufacturing?
Internally, everything is binary and only binary. The only places that characters exist are places where you can literally see them with your eyes. For your benefit, and your benefit only, the system contains code that associates pictures such as
6 with those binary values and displays those pictures on the screen or on printer paper.