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Could someone explain to me what component(s) are responsible for translating binary into ASCII/UNICODE? For example, is it an assembly program that sets up a 1-1 correspondence between characters and their binary equivalents, which is then loaded into ROM during manufacturing?

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    $\begingroup$ I think you suffer from wrong assumptions. On machine level, there is only binary. The "translation" into "characters" happens on application level, and only for human's sake. $\endgroup$
    – Raphael
    Aug 17, 2017 at 5:15

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Internally, everything is binary and only binary. The only places that characters exist are places where you can literally see them with your eyes. For your benefit, and your benefit only, the system contains code that associates pictures such as a or 6 with those binary values and displays those pictures on the screen or on printer paper.

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  • $\begingroup$ The code that you mention, is it typically written in assembly or can such low-level activity be controlled by a high-level language? $\endgroup$
    – Steven
    Aug 17, 2017 at 10:41
  • $\begingroup$ It doesn't really matter. Ultimately, it's just setting pixel values in the display memory, which the graphics card then translates to signals to light the individual pixels (or some component of hte printer is doing essentiall the same thing). $\endgroup$ Aug 17, 2017 at 11:37
  • $\begingroup$ I see. Thank you for your lucid explanations. $\endgroup$
    – Steven
    Aug 17, 2017 at 18:49

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