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Direct map cache uses a valid bit to effectively know if any data is present to a specific cache-slot (aka line/index). If this is the only use of this bit, then I believe, once a line has v-bit set, it won't be unset until power off.

In addition, I wonder why similar optimization has not been done for associative (full or k-way) cache. Only reason I could imagine is that since for every read/write, a cache-slot will be filled, the cache will be filled pretty soon; and the probability of a slot being empty is zero in no time.

Any feedback will be much appreciated.

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    $\begingroup$ There is some form of validity bit for every line in every type of cache. Otherwise, at power-up, tags will be random and there is the risk of a false hit. $\endgroup$ Jun 27, 2019 at 15:23
  • $\begingroup$ @ Alan Merigot - I thought CPU caches are volatile! If so, why would tags be random at power-up $\endgroup$
    – KGhatak
    Jun 27, 2019 at 18:23
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    $\begingroup$ They are volatile. Their content is lost at power down. At power up, the content of a flip-flop/memory cell is undetermined for electronic reasons. So, it is part of the boot process to invalidate all cache blocks. $\endgroup$ Jun 27, 2019 at 19:42

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