7

Here is one possible approach. Since $L$ is c.e., there is some enumerator that outputs a list of the word in $L$: $w_1,w_2,\ldots$. Let $D$ consist of all words $w_i$ which are longer than all words appearing before them. I claim that $D$ is infinite. If not, let $w_m$ be the last word in $D$. Then all other words have length at most $|w_m|$. However, this ...


3

No, it is not necessarily recursively enumerable. There are languages that are recursively enumerable but not recursive. Thus, their complement is not recursively enumerable. From that, you should be able to prove that the answer to the question in the final sentence of your post is no (I'll let you fill in the details from there).


2

Enumerate the c.e. set, keep only entries that appear in increasing lexocographic order. As the c.e. set is infinite, there will be new elements larger than the last kept one (thus the subset is infinite). To decide the subset, enumerate until hitting the element or a larger one.


1

The property of being EVEN-CFL of c.e. languages is not trivial, by Rice's theorem this is not decidable.


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